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What kind of person is Emperor Jingjing of the Western Han Dynasty? Why was Liu Qi's meager widow called benevolent?

Let's take a look at the Western Han Dynasty King Emperor who was brought by the interesting history editor?

As the saying goes: "With the monarch is like a tiger." In the ancient feudal dynasty in China, the power of the monarch was supreme, almost mastering the power of life and death of all people in the world, and the lack of restrained monarchy has been very willful in ancient times, resulting in Countless disasters. Even so, however, many monarchs known for their kindness appeared in ancient times, such as Song Renzong and Ming Renzong .

A careful study of the lives of these benevolent monarchs will reveal that one benevolent monarch has many actions that are not only incompatible with the benevolent, but can also be said to be mean and indifferent, and cool in nature, that is the Western Han Emperor Liu Qi .

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Above_ Liu Qi (188-141 BC), the Emperor of Han Dynasty

What kind of mean things did King Emperor Han Jing have done?

I. Furious Murder

According to the Han Book:

"When filial piety, Prince Wu came in and had to serve the Crown Prince to drink Bo. Prince Wu was a clever man, light and proud. He argued, disrespectfully, the Crown Prince cited Bo Wu to kill him. So Send him to the funeral and bury Wu. Wu Wangyi said: 'If the world is dead, Chang'an will be buried in Chang'an, why should he be buried!' towards."

During the Emperor Han Dynasty , Prince Wu Xian (who had a disputed name) came to worship in Chang'an, and he drank and played chess with a similarly prince (later Emperor Han Jing). As a result, Liu Xianjiao was arrogant and treated Liu Qi while playing chess. Disrespectfully, Liu Qi, who was just alive, actually lifted the chessboard and smashed Liu Xian to death. Although the Emperor Hanwen was shocked, Liu Qi was not punished. Instead, he sent someone to return Liu Xian's body to Wu Guo for burial.

After the body arrived in Wu Kingdom, Wu Wang Liu Yan said angrily: "The family with the same surname in the world should be buried in Changan when they die in Chang'an, why should they be sent to Wu country for burial?" The body was returned to Changan for burial. Since then, King Wu has no longer followed the etiquette of the feudal lord , saying that he was unwilling to enter the DPRK. Emperor Han Wen knew his shame, and acquiesced in his behavior.

Although this incident was preceded by Prince Wu's rudeness, Liu Qi's direct killing was indeed a bit brutal, and this incident directly led to the dissatisfaction of Wu Guo, the strongest power in the Western Han Dynasty at the time. The outbreak laid the bane.

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Above _ Wrong (200 BC-154 BC), Western Han politician and writer

Second, kill the teacher unjustly

The "Hanshu Yuan Angji Wrong Biography" records: "Go to the good, and worship the wrong as the prince's family prince. For his reasoning, Prince Prince, the prince's family is called 'think tank'."

He fault served as his think tank when Liu Qi was a prince, and accompanied him to teach him. It was actually Liu Qi's teacher. After Liu Qi's ascension, he was even more favored and gradually promoted to Doctor Yushi. The political affairs of the court almost obeyed his words, and almost turned into a "two-person transfer." However, mistakes are not incompetent, and they do put forward many excellent suggestions, such as advocating that Nasu be accepted, thereby increasing agricultural production; putting forward the strategic idea of "immigrants real side", suggesting that recruiting people to enrich the frontiers and actively prepare for the attack of the Huns Grapple.

However, the mistaken "cut policy" proposed by Concord to consolidate the central government has become the trigger for the rebellion of the vassal states. Originally dissatisfied with the central government, Wang Wang Liu Ye united six countries, including Chu, Zhao, Jinan, Zichuan, Jiaoxi, and Jiaodong, and launched a rebellion under the name " Qingjun side , wrong", which is the history of the Western Han Dynasty. The Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms of Wu Chu . For a time, the mistake was a target of public criticism. Emperor Han Jing turned his face ruthlessly, and suddenly ordered to kill him when he was wrong and using the extremely brutal slashing method.

The wrongful killing was undoubtedly an injustice. Later generations have different opinions on the reasons for the wrongful killing, but in any case, the emperor Han Jing's wrongful killing of his teacher could not be washed away.

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Above_ Liu Che (156-87 BC), the Emperor Han Wu

Third, killing parents and children

Emperor Han Jing adored the concubine Li Ji in his early years. The two had three sons, of which Liu Rong was the eldest son. Since the queen had no sons and no pets, Liu Qi had no sister-in-law, and Liu Rong was logically listed as a prince. Later, in the secret operation of Han Jingdi's sister, the longest princess Liu Ye and Han Jingdi's another concubine wife , coupled with Li Ji's frankness and indifference, she gradually fell out of favor; Han Jingdi eventually abandoned his elder son and prince Liu Rongfei. For the Linjiang King , the son of the wife of Li Wang (Liu Che) was the prince, later the Emperor Han Wu, and Liu Rong actually became the first crown prince to be abolished in ancient China.

Although according to the " Historical Records of the Five Sects", Liu Rong was blamed for death for the crime of invading and occupying the land of Zongmiao Temple, but from the whole process of the incident and the reaction of Emperor Jingde Han after the death of Liu Rong See, the historical circles generally think that Liu Rong was forced to die by Emperor Jingde Han, and his purpose was naturally to pave the way for the new prince Liu Che to ascend the throne. Liu Rong was the real son of Emperor Jingde Han. Forcing his own son to death is not an act of benevolence.

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Above _ Zhou Yafu's Seven Kings Rebellion

Fourth, treat the hero

Emperor Han Jingming knew that it would be impossible to quell the rebellion by killing Xuancuo, but he still killed Xuancuo, but on the other hand, he was actively preparing for the war. He appointed General Zhou Yafu as the commander of the rebellion and went to Shandong to rebel.

Due to the insistence of Han Jingdi's brother and Liang Wang Liu Wu and the excellent command of General Zhou Yafu, although the Wu Chu Seven Kingdoms Rebellion was huge, it only took three months to settle, especially Zhou Yafu. In the process of the insurgency, it is said that it has made great contributions.

Zhou Yafu was the second son of Zhou Bo , the founder of the Western Han Dynasty. Although the Han Dynasty emperor was jealous of suppressing Zhou Bo, he entrusted Zhou Yafu with a heavy responsibility. The Han Dynasty emperor praised him as "True General" in the "Historical Records", and "Sai Liu of Zhou Yafu Army" became an eternity The masterpiece became an excellent example of the general management of the army, and was sung by future generations.

Zhou Yafu's rigorous army, outstanding military talent, and vindicating people can be regarded as the military backbone of the country during the Han King Emperor. However, Zhou Yafu was jealous of Emperor Jingde Han for his outspoken character and fearless powers. Later, he was implicated by his son's purchase of a shield and was sentenced to imprisonment. He died of hunger and hunger strike. Emperor Han Jing's treatment of Zhou Yafu had many considerations, but the results were shuddering. He could not take off his hat of being hardworking and modest.

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Above_ Zhou Yafu (199-143 BC)

So the question is, why did Han Jingdi, who had done so many unkind things, have a good historical reputation, and even got the title of benevolent?

In fact, the answer is very simple. Together with his father Han Wendi Liu Heng , he created the first rule of the era of the great unification of ancient times -the rule of Wenjing .

The rule of Wenjing, as the name implies, is the result of the governance of the world by the two generations of Emperor Hanwen and Emperor Hanjing. Wen Jingzhi's first name came from the "Han Jingjing Emperor" "Zhou Yunchengkang, Han Wenwen Jing, beautiful!"

However, the historians mentioned that Wen Jingzhi's rule mostly focused on Han Wendi, but Han Jingdi became the heir to Xiaowen Cao Sui of Han Wendi because of the sentence "Jingdi Zunye" in history books. Shao Qian, his son Han Wudi's aura is too bright, and Emperor Han Jing was even regarded as the mediocre master and middle master in later generations. In fact, Emperor Han Jing and Emperor Yongzheng and their similarities are easily overlooked, but they play a key role in linking up and down.

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Above _ Early Han Dynasty Situation

What are the key roles played by Emperor Han Jing in the rule of Wen Jing?

First, continue to "thin lightly Fu" and become customized

At the beginning of the Western Han Dynasty, the entire world experienced more than 500 years of war and division during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period . After that, it encountered more than a decade of tyranny in the Qin Dynasty , three years of the Qin annihilation war, and four years of battle between the Chu and Han . Very withered. Therefore, as early as the time of Liu Gao of Han Gaozu , according to the Taoist Huang Lao theory, he advocated " doing nothing by doing " and adopted the policies of "thin and flimsy" and "rest with the people". In the period of Emperor Han Wen and Emperor Jing Jing, the advantages of this policy were brought to the extreme.

During the period of Emperor Hanwen, the "half of the land tax" was lowered twice, reducing the field tax during the Han and Gao ancestors from "fifteen taxes and one" to "30 taxes and one", referring to the payment of one-third of the farmers' acres. country.

In the second year of Emperor Jingdi (156 years ago), he also said: "Let the people half rent out the land for rent, thirty yuan and one tax." Han Jingdi continued to implement the "thirty taxes one," and more importantly, he will "three As a fixed policy of the Han Dynasty , "Ten Taxes and One" was the era when the land tax was lowest in ancient China. During the period of Emperor Han Wen, he "did a male for three years", that is, adult male service was reduced to once every three years. Emperor Han Jing raised the minimum age of adult male service on the basis of his father in the first 155 years. After three years, it reduced the overall time for ordinary people to serve in the army.

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Above_ Han Taizong, Liu Heng (203 BC-157 BC), the Emperor Han Wen

Second, severely restrain the mighty

Emperor Han Wen advocated Huang Lao's doctrine and emphasized "doing nothing by doing". Although agricultural production was largely restored, it also brought about serious social wealth division. This is because under the policies such as "light-minded fu" and "prohibition of Chishanze", the powerful landlords who have the most land have the most profits, and the overly generous character and governance style of the Emperor Hanwen undoubtedly contributed to their arrogance. These wealthy, meritorious, and landowners have gradually expanded, occupying a large amount of society's wealth, using a large number of slaves, consuming a large amount of labor results, and madly merging land, leading to the bankruptcy and exile of a large number of self-cultivated farmers.

Emperor Han Wen also found out these problems. He reused Jia Yi and put forward a series of measures, such as opposing strong and extravagant styles, prohibiting powerful and powerful people from casting money, restricting agriculture and suppressing business , and gradually dividing princes. However, Jia Yi's claims seriously harmed the interests of the nobles, and they were accused of "beginners in the young age, dedicated to power and chaos." In order to seek stability in the imperial court, Emperor Han Wen finally exiled Jia Yi to a very humid time. In the deserted Changsha, Jia Yihuai died of depression and depression. He was only 33 years old when he died, leaving a sigh of "Qu Jiayi in Changsha" for future generations.

After Emperor Han Jing's throne, he was significantly tougher than his father in restraining the mighty powers. He had no fear of being powerful and powerful and adopted false suggestions and reused the so-called cool officials such as Ba Du, Wang Wenshu , Yan Yannian , and Ning Cheng . Tongbian is not powerful. "Historical Records" and "Hanshu" both recorded the situation at that time, saying "bleeding for more than ten miles", "Yu Jiegu Li", "powerful ribs, Megatron nearby county" and so on. Greatly cracked down on the arrogance of the mighty and powerful, and protected the interests of farmers to a certain extent.

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Above _ "Historical Records" is a historical biography book written by the Western Han historian Sima Qian, and it is the first general history of historical biography in China.

Actively improve the impropriety of his father's abolition of harsh laws

The two emperors of Wenjing were relatively able to learn from the short-lived experience of the Qin Dynasty, and they were too strict about some laws in the Qin Dynasty since the Shangyang Reform. For example, the famous story of "Ti Xi saves his father" in history happened during the period of Emperor Hanwen, which prompted Emperor Hanwen to abolish the three forms of corporal punishment: 劓, 劓, and 刖, and then abolished the law of sitting and slandering demon words. However, although the benevolent starting point of Emperor Hanwen's criminal law was good, great problems occurred in the actual implementation process. Not only did he fail to achieve the purpose of reducing punishment, but he intensified. The most typical one is the replacement penalty after the abolition of corporal punishment.

To explain here, torture is to tattoo the prisoner's face, and then apply ink charcoal to become a symbol of the crime that can never be washed away; torture is to cut off the prisoner's nose, which seriously affects the face value and insults the personality; It means cutting off the left, right or both feet of the prisoner. Obviously, these three types of corporal punishment will leave the prisoner with a permanent label, causing great insult to his personality.

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Above_ Ming Jiajing's Eight-Year-Old Supervisor's Journal [Former Han Book--Criminal Law]

After the Emperor Hanwen abolished these three corporal punishments, he switched to slaughter (bamboo and wooden boards to punish the prisoner's back, hips, or legs) and serve in prison. The specific provisions are: the punishment was changed to repair the city wall (male), and the food (female) ), The sentence was changed to 300, and the sentence was changed to 500.

On the surface, the punishment has indeed been reduced, but according to the "Hanshu Criminal Law" records:

"After that, there is the name of light punishment on the outside and actual killing on the inside .... The left-handed person is only $ 500, the first person is $ 300, and the rate of death is much more. "

It can be seen that when Emperor Han Wen and his ministers did not consider the prisoner's tolerance when formulating the number of executions, most of the people who were jailed between 300 and 500 were killed on the spot, and those who survived were also lucky. Disabled, Emperor Han Wen's benevolence was executed to change the taste.

Emperor Han Jing apparently discovered this problem, and he immediately succumbed to the throne:

"Twenty-five hundred means three hundred, twenty-three means two-hundred ... Its minus three-hundred-three means two hundred, and two hundred-hundred two hundred means one hundred. He who teaches, so teaches it, and he decides .... It is five feet long, its size is one inch, and its bamboo is one inch thin at the end, all of which are flat. When you are a cripple, you shall bend your buttocks. You must be more human, and you are complete if you have sin.

He reduced the number of executions twice, to a minimum of 100, and also specified that the torture site must be the buttocks (this part is meaty and thick, and has strong resistance). The length, width and thickness of the torture are specified Also, it is not allowed to have bamboo joints to avoid too much pain when hitting, and no substitutions are allowed during execution (referring to the person who hits must not be changed midway, so after the fight is exhausted, the intensity will be lighter and lighter, and the victim will be more and more The easier it is), under these more specific and practical regulations, the punishment has been completely reduced, so most people can guarantee their survival without becoming disabled.

In addition, Emperor Han Jing also emphasized prudent usage, and used some effective measures such as the "Selling Order" and "Law of Sin" to give some special criminals some care.

It can be seen that the policy style of Emperor Han Jing added some shadows of "rule of law" on the basis of "doing nothing by doing", and truly implemented benevolent measures such as frivolous endowment and mitigation of punishment, so that the majority of the people at the bottom could get With some benefits. His meanness and even some cruel behavior are concentrated in the ruling clique, which has nothing to do with the people, and objectively speaking, although these meanness and grace by Han Jingdi did have his fault, he was more In ensuring the smooth transfer of power and maintaining the stability of the rule of the country (for the smooth throne of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty), its contribution is very small compared to its contribution.

The bank's benevolent measures were appropriate, and it was ruthless to decisively kill. Overall, it deserves the name of Renjun. History also proves this. He successfully continued the rule of Wenjing, leaving a rich material foundation and an efficient operating mechanism for the Western Han Dynasty and Emperor Hanwu, and became a huge driving force for Hanwu Emperor to expand its territory and make the world awe-inspiring .

In fact, there is no true benevolent in history. In the framework of feudal society, blind kindness and tolerance are not necessarily a good thing. There may be the phenomenon of raising tigers. Former Qin Xuanzhao Emperor Jian Jian is a living example.

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