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Was the battle of Changping really failed because Zhao Ku could only talk on paper? Analysis of the real situation of the battle of Changping!

Today, the interesting history editor will bring you the real situation of the battle of Changping ! Interested readers can follow the editor to take a look.

The Battle of Changping was a famous battle between Qin and Zhao during the Warring States Period. As a result, Zhao Kuo became a well-known historical figure, and the allusion that he produced on paper was also well known. Is Zhao Guo 's defeat all to blame Zhao Kuo, and how much responsibility should he bear for this defeat? Does he have a better choice?

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Shangdang: the fuse that triggered the battle of Qin Zhao Changping

According to the "Historical Records", the direct cause of this battle between Qin and Zhao was the problem of Shangdang County. In 262 BC, Qin captured the South Korean King of the Wild (now Henan Qinyang), which directly cut off the connection between Shangdang County in South Korea and South Korea, which made Shangdang an enclave out of South Korea. So the Korean monarch Han Yee-hye simply asked the Shang Dang county defender Feng Ting to dedicate the Shang party to Qin Guo, hoping that Qin Guo would stop. As a result, Feng Ting was unwilling to surrender Qin Guo, and he dedicated the Shang party to neighboring Zhao Guo, which triggered the battle between Qin Zhao Changping. At that time, when Feng Ting presented Zhao Kingdom with the Seventeenth City of Shangdang County, Zhao Guo had two opinions in China:

Refusal faction: This faction is represented by Zhao Guozong ’s royal family, Pingyang Jun, Zhao Bao. He believes that Shangdang County is already Qin ’s pocket, and if it is taken away, it is equivalent to giving Qin Guo a slap in the face. It will lead to Qin's attack, and it also gives Qin a reason to go to war, and thinks that this kind of behavior of stealing food is very dangerous.

Accepting faction: This faction is represented by Zhao Sheng, the plain monarch who is also the family of Zhao Guo. Zhao Sheng , the four main sons of the Warring States Period, has always been a hardliner, and he has repeatedly enemies with Qin. Therefore, he thinks that even if the army is dispatched, it is not possible to lay down many cities. Now, without wasteful efforts, 17 cities have been obtained. This kind of benefit cannot be discarded in vain.

The end result was that King Zhao Xiaocheng obeyed the opinion of Pingjun Zhao Sheng, accepted Shangdang County, and sent Lianpo's troops to station troops in Changping to guard against Qin's attack. This behavior of Zhao Guo apparently angered Qin Guo, so Qin Guo began to plan an attack on Zhao Guo, later known as the Changping Battle. Judging from the results of the Changping battle, this view of the plain monarch Zhao Sheng is obviously an important reason that led to the end of Zhao Guo's unreliable death. Although he did not accept that Zhao Guo could not defeat Qin Guo in the end Unify the world, but it is unwise to proactively provoke the strong as the weak. Moreover, because of the covetous pursuit of these 17 cities, hundreds of years of accumulated national power were exhausted, and he has since lost the status of a military power that can challenge Qin. From this, it seems that Zhao Sheng, the plain monarch, cannot blame him.

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Protracted battle and quick decisive battle, in fact, Zhao Guo is difficult to win

In the Changping battle that officially broke out in 260 BC, first of all, Lian Po, as the general of Zhao Jun, chose the defense strategy of sticking to the barricades when the confrontation with Qin Jun was unfavorable. Qin Jun's unsustainable strategy also made it difficult for him to win, and the two sides became deadlocked. However, King Zhao Xiaocheng was very dissatisfied with Lianpo's persistent strategy of not fighting, so that later he changed coaches. Zhao Kuo, who advocated quick combat, replaced Lianpo as the general, and then Zhao Kuo was besieged by Qin Army in the initiative. Caused the entire war to collapse. From the perspective of this battle, it seems that Lianpo's strategy is correct. Zhao Kuo's strategy is the wrong strategy of talking on paper. Therefore, Zhao Kuo has the greatest responsibility. If he continues to have the strategy, he may have a chance.

Quick decision strategy: In fact, this strategy has indeed been proved to be unsatisfactory by the final results. After all, Qin Jun's strength has been proven many times, and Lian Po confronted Qin Jun in the early days of the Changping Battle. The results proved that it was difficult to win against Zhao Jun in the field. Moreover, even if Lian Po retreated into the camp and remained stubborn, many camps were breached by the Qin Army, and there were more casualties among senior officers in Zhao Jun, which fully shows that Zhao Jun is very strenuous even in defense. Therefore, Zhao Kuo's advocacy for speedy warfare was dangerous and aggressive, so Zhao Kuo indeed had an unshirkable responsibility.

Lasting strategy: This strategy has indeed retarded Qin Jun's attack on the battlefield, and has achieved certain results. At least, Zhao Jun has not crashed, and the battle situation can barely maintain balance. However, from the perspective of the Changping battlefield zooming into Qin Zhao, in fact, Zhao Guo may not be able to win when the stalemate continues. After all, the stalemate at that time has basically exhausted Zhao Guo's logistics savings. We found from the history books that Zhao Guo has begun Borrowed food from Qi State , and although Zhao Guo can compete with Qin State in terms of military strength, it is far worse than Qin State in terms of comprehensive national strength, so it is more likely that Qin State will still win if it stalemates. Therefore, the lasting strategy can only be said to be the most correct choice on the battlefield at that time, but if we zoom in to the national strength of the two countries, it will still not be enough to change the outcome of the entire battle.

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Diplomatic Mistakes, Another Important Reason for the Failure of the Changping War

In the current situation on the battlefield, other factors are often required to seek change, and diplomacy is the most effective way. Zhao Guojun and his officials did take this into consideration. But unfortunately, Zhao Xiaocheng chose the wrong method again.

Asking for help in the Kanto countries: This is a plan proposed by Zhao Qing ’s official Yu Qing . He proposed to call for help in Shandong and Chu countries such as Chu and Wei, and use the power of these countries to change the battle pattern. Then negotiate with Qin Guo. This suggestion is very reasonable. After all, the two countries of Qin and Zhao were doing their utmost at that time. Qin State may not give up without external pressure. Only by drawing together other countries to form a coordinating force can the Qin state be discouraged. As soon as it is closed, even if Zhao Guo loses some benefits, he will not hurt his muscles.

Ask Qin directly: This is the suggestion of Lou Chang, another Zhao official. He simply believed that sending messengers to seek peace from Qin Guo could solve Changping's dilemma. In response to his suggestion, Yu Qing proposed that Qin Guoxing's division would not easily dismiss troops, and that Qin Guo would use the opportunity of Zhao Guo to make peace and pretend to negotiate, so that the vassals of the world would think that Qin Zhao would not continue fighting, and other countries would rescue them The possibility of Zhao Guo will become smaller.

The young King Zhao Xiaocheng apparently made the wrong decision again, and Qin Guo did, as Yu Qing expected, pretend to agree to peace, which not only paralyzed Zhao Guo, but also made other countries think that Zhao Guo is not in danger of dying and is unwilling Adventure to rescue Zhao. Until the battle of Changping was defeated and Zhao Guo was already in danger of dying, other countries reorganized and rescued Zhao. I have to say that this diplomatic misstep basically determined that Zhao Guo had fallen into a dead end in the battle of Changping.

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King Zhao Xiaocheng: a helpless culprit

Taken together, in fact, Zhao Xiaocheng should bear the greatest responsibility in the entire Changping battle. After all, he has his responsibilities in accepting the Communist Party, inadequate diplomacy, and changing coaches. But we should also see that he has many helpless places:

Soon pro-government: The battle of Changping was essentially the first major war since Zhao Xiaocheng pro-government. At this time, he had just been in government for three years, and he was still a young monarch. In terms of governing the country, he was far from the old king Qin Zhaoxiang . Therefore, he is still not very sophisticated in many decisions. Although he did not seem to see the negotiation process with the minister except the last time he changed coaches in these several choices, he consulted the minister in accepting the Communist Party and foreign policy decisions. Opinion, but he made the wrong choice.

His experience gave him the illusion: although we could not understand in detail the life experience of King Zhao Xiaocheng before, we can make a corollary. He was made Prince in 277 BC and inherited Zhao Guojunzhi in 266 BC. Position, but because he was still young when he succeeded, his mother would be in charge of the imperial court, and the ancients would be considered to be an adult when he was fifteen or sixteen. It is estimated that he should be only about 20 years old during the battle of Changping. So let's look at the things he can contact and know before he was twenty years old. From the time he was established as a prince in 277 BC to being accepted in 262 BC, we found from historical books that Zhao Guo was almost undefeated. Existed, all won in battles with Qi, Wei, Hu, and Huns. Even in the battle with Qin, they only failed twice in non-critical mini-battles, but the famous battles were all Zhao Guo To win, Qin Jun failed. For example, the battle between Zhe Yu, commanded by Zhao Ku ’s father, Zhao She , and Qin Guo attacking Zhao after King Zhao Xiaocheng succeeded. These victories inevitably led the young Zhao Xiaocheng to underestimate Qin's power.

It is precisely because of his youth, and because of his bias in understanding Qin's strength, Zhao Xiaocheng Wang repeatedly made wrong decisions in the battle of Changping. But after this battle, he quickly grew. Under the crisis of Changping's fierce defeat, King Zhao Xiaocheng united the army and civilians to hold Handan, to keep Zhao Guo immortal, and at the same time defeated Yan Guo who wanted to rob . After that, his rule should be considered good, but the battle of Changping did lose too much, and it was difficult for Zhao Guo to restore his national strength in the short term. In addition, Zhao Xiaocheng's successor was lacking, and eventually Zhao Guo could not rise again.

In summary, it is obvious that Zhao Kuo cannot be blamed for the failure of the Changping Battle. If anyone has greater responsibility, it should be the young Zhao Xiaocheng. After all, these wrong decisions were made by him. However, there are certain responsibilities to propose accepting the Lord of the Plains and to ask Qin and Lou Chang directly. Of course, the same young Zhao Kuo proposed or catered to the fast-fighting strategy, and continued to implement this strategy after entering the Changping battlefield. Eventually, the military defeat also had an unshirkable responsibility.

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