The Chinese word for "militarism" comes from the Japanese character "militarism" (中国 ん こ く し ゅ ぎ), which the Chinese often associate with the Japanese national policy ideas of the Second World War. However, the practice of militarism is not limited to Japan. Many historically powerful countries or regimes have military-first policies. The Kingdom of Prussia, the Soviet Union, the United States, and the British Empire all have elements of militarism. Among them, Prussia is the most. Everyone knows that Prussia owns a country instead of a country. The blood-blooded policy of the Prussian Prime Minister Bismarck is also a portrayal of militarism. Japanese militarism is derived from the term Militarismus, which was originally born of criticism of the French Second Empire and the German Empire by liberals and socialists.


Militarism-refers to the advocacy of force and military expansion

The father of Japanese militarism, Yamagata: The ancestor of the Japanese warlord kingdom

The country in which East Asia first integrated into the world is the country with the worst crime in the world! And everything must have cause and effect. Of course, we say from whom did the uncool guy in Japan develop the evil habit of moving the sword? ? In fact, this guy is too famous. He loved force from an early age. He first implemented modernization reforms in the army, and led troops to invade China, and established a modern staff headquarters for Japan. This guy is a notorious militaristic giant Shanxian. !

This guy was formerly known as Tatsunosuke of Yamagata. He didn't change to a friend of Yamagata until the Meiji Restoration . In 1838, he was born in a declining samurai family. This guy was unlucky when he was a kid. Fortunately, he grew up and was lucky. He was injured, and he lost his mother at the age of five. His size made me a samurai motto as a mantra, so that people called him samurai instead of his name. In short, he and unlucky brothers were brothers. Today's Japanese children think that suicide really hurts him!

In 1853, Shanxian Youpeng actually became a master of judo judo. In order to learn marksmanship [Cold Weapon], he also paid special attention to the most famous master. So far, Shanxian Pengpeng did not think he would go to politics to develop. His thinking It is when a Kendo teacher or is able to work in the Minglun Pavilion. Of course, it is best to enter the army. But at this time, the reform has not yet begun, and the future of the army is not very bright. The special envoy of Zhou Fan went to Beijing to observe. Here he came into contact with many princes of the King. After being nurtured by these people, a friend from Yamagata was recommended to work in Matsushita-mura, known as "Japan's greenhouse for new ideas." After meeting Yoshida Matsune and other advanced people, he soon resolved to use force to overthrow the so-called shogunate! Shanxian Youpeng, who became a progressive person, resolutely participated in the downfall army. In 1863, he was already a military inspector of the surprise army. Shanxian encountered the first opportunity in his life. In August of the following year, the joint naval fleet of the four nations shelled the Cheung Chau Fan. Shanxian himself led his soldiers to death. He was a soldier, but it had no effect. The Changzhou Army returned in defeat, and Shanxian was injured in many places, but the pain in his body made him another idea, which made him a resolute military reformer. .

In 1869, the second opportunity for Youxian in Shan County came. As a resolute proponent of Western thought, he was sent to Europe to inspect the real thing and studied various industries in Britain, France, the Netherlands, and Germany, especially The construction of the weapon industry. At this time, he believes that to complete the real cause of reform, we must break the trend of separation, that is, power in one body and military power in the center. In 1870, a visit by a friend from Shanxian ended, and he returned to Japan via the United States. He was appointed as the second officer of the Ministry of War. In the next year, he was promoted to the post of Chief of the Ministry of War and the Secretary of the Army. In this way, a friend from Shanxian controlled the military power of the Meiji government. In this way, no one can hinder his military reform plan. In this reform, its main focus is on learning from experience and reforming the military system. For example, the Japanese Navy adopted the British system, while the Army adopted the French system. It took a year to build a number of people. There are not many but loyal monarchs. This team named "Imperial Army" only obeys the orders of the Emperor and himself. Under his control, the Japanese political system has also changed, and the army and naval provinces have been established and introduced. The conscription command! The modern military post he established is a significant development of Japan's military strength, and the six military districts established throughout the country have effectively played a role in the management of the military district.

There is a famous edict in history, the "Abolition of the Sword". The introduction of this edict completely abolished the military privileges of feudal warriors. Since then, the Japanese army has truly become a stage for emerging military families, and it has also established modern officers for Japan. The group system established a good foundation and greatly increased the enthusiasm of civilians participating in the army. By 1874, the Saga Turkish rebellion broke out in Japan. In this operation, a friend in Shanshan Prefecture served as a member of the army. The rebellion was quickly evaluated. This is also the first time that Shanxian commanded such a large-scale operation [don't compare it with the Western powers at the time], which made a friend in Shanxian further increase his prestige in the two military and political sessions. Since then, he has been repeatedly ordered to destroy armed rebellions everywhere. They completed the mission very well, and the entire southwestern region gradually quieted down under the action of Shanxian. The emperor also relied more on this person!

After the Southwest Annihilation War, a friend from Yamagata began to look more long-term. In order to meet the needs of the Japanese army at that time, Yamagata decided to carry out military reform again. So in the late 1870s, Japan established a modern staffing staff: Staff Headquarters! It was an epoch-making decision that he naturally became the first-person minister. Since then, the Japanese army has become increasingly aggressive. This organization is not subject to the restraint of various departments and is only assigned to the Emperor. It can freely mobilize each army unit. As soon as the aggression came, there was fear and fear! In 1879, a friend in Shan County couldn't sit still. He sent more than a dozen military officers to China to investigate military conditions. This military activity under the guise of studying culture gave him great power. Confidence , in his book presented to the emperor, wrote: The urgent need to expand the army, hungry for food! For the war between China and Japan, some friends in Shanxian County thought that it was important to expand the army and prepare for war!

In 1889, a friend from Shan County was ordered to form a cabinet. At this time, he put forward the statement that China and South Korea would break the lifeline of Japanese interests. He believed that only by controlling these two places could Japan's interests be guaranteed. This was the first time that Japan disclosed its own The words of aggression, at the time it seemed, there were indeed many opportunities. The change of North Korea in 1882, the Japanese staff headquarters began to formulate actions against China, from 1890 to 1892 Japan's military spending rose by as much as 10%. The size of the navy has also expanded significantly, and domestic education has also promoted the so-called theory of defending interests!

In August 1894, the Sino-Japanese War broke out. A friend from Shanxian personally led an army to participate in the war. When fighting in Pyongyang, Anton and other places, his troops appeared as the main force. Under his suggestion, Japan began. In the so-called battle against China, he was appointed Minister of the Army because of his aggressive aggression. After that, Yamagata Yupeng, as the pinnacle of the Japanese army, further planned the invasion of the Eight Kingdoms and other activities. Until the formation of the Ito Cabinet, Yamagata Yupeng was The absolute number one in Japan is undeniable! And even if he does not hold a post in politics, there is no change in the habit of aggression by a friend in Yamagata. In the later Russo-Japanese War, he personally formulated a combat plan and commanded the Japanese army to combat, which brought extreme benefits to the Chinese people A big disaster! Now there is a friend in Shanxian who is no longer young, but when he heard a news, he even jumped up. It turned out that his old friend Ito Bowen died in 1909. Now he is already the oldest in Japan. The qualified elders, it seems that the scourge is really going to be lost for thousands of years. In 1914, when the First World War broke out, a friend from Shan County advocated an immediate invasion of China. He believed that the chaos across Europe was the best gift from heaven to Japan to dominate Asia and must be seized. Under his encouragement, Japan threw out The so-called " twenty-one " is to turn China into Japan's absolute control!

However, this guy is finally about to die. Although he did not have the energy to do anything more in the First World War, his thinking had a profound influence, and he also carried out his shadow in the Japanese operations in World War II! 1922 , A generation of scourges of friends in Shan County is finally over, but there are still so many militaristic scourges living on earth, but the days of trials are not far away, and human justice will last forever!

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A familiar and unfamiliar term: Militarism originated in Prussia

The army also had a profound influence on the social development and class structure of Prussia. The civilian middle class is still obedient, and in fact the policy of absorbing the entire landlord and noble (Junk) into military institutions has become the ruler. They consciously used the army as a tool to instill the “all-Prussian” mentality in the landlord families of Kreffer, Brandenburg, Pomerania, and the former Teutonic Knights. Prussia is a very young, man-made territorial consortium, which makes the feeling of loyalty to it unnatural at first, and it is necessary to rely on obvious military means to inculcate it. The indoctrination focuses on duty, obedience, service and sacrifice. In addition to the above factors, the reason why military virtues are characteristic of the entire Prussian male aristocracy should also be attributed to the small population of the country. In France, for example, there are about 50,000 male adult nobles, but only a few of them regularly serve in the army. In Prussia, almost all members of the Juncker family always wear uniforms.

In addition, the general election emperors and their successors, like all authoritarian rulers, repressed hierarchal conferences that consisted of landlords and nobles, that is, local parliaments. To quell the dissatisfaction of the great landlords, the ruler allowed members of the landlord class to be granted official positions in the army, and they were allowed to do whatever they wanted with their farmers. The Prussian monarchy was largely based on an understanding between the ruler and the landlord squire, that is, the latter agreed to recognize the ruler's government and was willing to serve in his army; but in return, the ruler allowed the landlord squire Continue to place her farmers in a hereditary position. Serfdom was as prevalent in Prussia as it was throughout Eastern Europe. In East Prussia, the situation of farmers is as miserable as that of Polish farmers.

The Prussian rulers believed that Junker landlords could be better officers, because they grew up in the habit of governing their own farmers. In order to maintain the rank of officers, the law prohibits the sale of "noble" land, that is, the sale of Caiyi to non-nobles. In France, in contrast, the rights of Caiyi have simply become a form of property, and the bourgeoisie and even the peasants can legally acquire Caiyi and enjoy a lord or "feudal noble" income. In Prussia, this is impossible; various classes are frozen because of the immutable form of property. Therefore, it is difficult for middle-class people to enter the ranks of nobles by taking up the occupation of landlords and nobles. In short, the bourgeoisie has no independent spirit. There are few old German towns in East Prussia. The Prussian middle class is not wealthy and does not have much private property. The typical middle-class element is an official who works for the government and is an employee or renter of a large royal industry or a business that relies on state subsidies. Prussian civilians have been known for their integrity and efficiency since the time of the election of emperors. But the Prussian middle class is more submissive to the nobility, more loyal to the country, and more daunting to the army than the middle class elsewhere.

These characteristics of Prussia were further developed under the rule of Friedrich Wilhelm I. William I served as the head of state from 1713 to 1740. He is a realistic and vulgar person. He despised everything with a "cultural" flavor, but his father and grandfather (electors), and his son (Greater Friedrich) paid much attention to it. He regrets not every penny spent on the army. He cut royal expenses by three quarters. On the way to the coronation ceremony in Königsberg, he spent 2,547 silver coins, and his father once spent 5 million silver coins for this. He ruled the country in a father-like manner in Germany, supervising the country like a private picker, often sneaking in Berlin streets in a worn out uniform, using a cane to punish negligent citizens. He works all day and wants everyone to do the same.

He loves the army and formulates all policies for the army. He was the first King of Prussia to appear in uniform. He rearranged court etiquette procedures, respecting officers and suppressing civilians. His love for tall soldiers is world-famous; he set up a special unit, all six or seven feet tall, from all over Europe, and Peter the Great did send him a few from Asia. He stipulated new forms of training and exercises, established a non-commissioned officer school for Junker ’s landlord children, and established a new recruitment system. Under this system, each regiment had a special district or state as a designated source of troops. Regional (this recruitment system has long been the most effective in Europe). The army he established, when he took office, was 40,000, and by the time of his death it had grown to 83,000. During his reign, Berlin developed into a city with a population of 100,000, of which 20,000 were soldiers. This proportion may be more than any other city in Europe. He also left his successor a military fee of seven million silver coins (because he had not actually fought in person).

Friedrich II (later known as Frederick the Great, also translated as Frederick the Great , ascended the throne in 1740) was astonished by Europe with this army and military expenditure. Shortly after the death of Charles VI in Austria, his daughter Maria Theresia began to inherit various rights. Throughout Europe, the guarantee of "state affairs" has taken a stance. While other nations were waiting, Friedrich began to attack. He mobilized the army to enter Silesia without notice, and the Hohenzollern family made ancient and vague demands on Silesia. Silesia is located upstream of the Oder, part of the Kingdom of Bohemia facing the Polish side and bordering Brandenburg to the north. Silesia's entry into the Kingdom of Prussia almost doubled its population and added valuable industries. As a result, Prussia finally became a large country with a population of six million and a military force of 200,000 established by Friedrich. It must be added that if judged solely on the achievements of mankind, Prussia is an extraordinary pioneering work, a country built on small businesses, and a victory for hard work and serious responsibility.

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How Old Japan Strengthened Militarism: Using Textbooks to "Brain Wash"

Guide: At the beginning of the new year, Japan has made small moves on the issue of textbooks. According to Kyodo News, Japan ’s publisher of digital textbooks, “Scientific Research Publishing”, recently submitted an application to the Japanese government to amend high school textbooks. This application has recently been approved by the government. In Japan, revising textbooks often represents a deeper meaning.

Professor Yamazumi of Tokyo Metropolitan University described in his textbook "Textbooks": "In Japan, textbooks are not only regarded as a reading material for systematic education of children, but also as a locomotive that leads children to grow up, it is also a Japanese education "Evidence" ... Before the war, Japan used textbooks to cultivate "military youth". "

Use composition to check brainwashing results

The professor of Hitotsubashi University, Nakamichi, explained the role of pre-war textbooks in "Militarism Talks and Textbooks": "Before the war, Japanese textbooks could be generally referred to as 'military textbooks'. Shi Jia Hua was written in an easy-to-understand way to promote the idea of "loyalty and patriotism." This textbook first entered social education subjects in Japanese schools under the name of "popular education", and then was continuously revised to become a kind of ethics "Taking a look at" Research on Military Education "edited by Tetsuhiko Watanabe in 1936, we can see that the old Japanese army was" careful and careful "in the use of textbooks. Their" guiding goal "for writing textbooks was to "Promote the legitimacy and permanence of the Japanese army and military behavior."

Before the Second World War, the Japanese Army had military schools such as Army Sergeant School, Army Infantry School, Army Aviation Sergeant School, Army Manager School, Army Pre-Sergeant Sergeant School, Manchuria Army Officer School, and Army College. The Japanese Navy also has naval schools, naval manager schools, naval institution schools, and naval colleges. The textbooks used by these schools for students are a kind of "brainwashing" textbook. For example, in the textbooks of the Mandarin language school of the Army's infant school, there is a text "Yasukuni Shrine" that reflects the "Army of the Army" Nomaki during the Russo-Japanese War, a text about the naval battle "Meeting the Mariner Camp", and a text describing the emotions of the militaristic family, "Sailors" mother of".

Tokyo University of Education Professor Shinoda recalled that when he taught at the Army Pre-Sergeant School before the war, he paid particular attention to the cultivation of students' writing skills. In his opinion, first let students read the textbooks of "Mandarin, Chinese, and the History of the State" repeatedly, and then practice writing on the basis of it, "the track of students' thought development can be seen most." He acknowledged that Japan was using this model at that time to check the results of "brainwashing" through student writing.

Exam highlights militarism education

Where there are textbooks, there must be examinations. The examination is not only a "copying repetition" of the textbook content, but also an ideological enhancement of the textbook content. After entering the Taisho and Showa years, the Japanese military became more and more powerful. The army sergeant schools and naval schools, which are called the cradle of military cadre training, attached great importance to textbooks and added many militaristic colors to the entrance examination. The problem of national color.

In 1920, the Tokyo Army Central Junior School was renamed the Army Sergeant School Preparatory Course, and the Army Sergeant School became an undergraduate in the Army Sergeant School. In the same year, in the reading questions for the entrance examination of the Army Sergeant School, the following content appeared: "Observe the trend of the East, continuous civil strife in the neighboring country, the state of weakness, Persia and Siam continue to maintain independence, but sooner or later they will be like India, Siberia, etc. have been invaded by other countries. Standing here, who should maintain peace in the East and contribute to world civilization? "Here, there is no doubt that the students answered" Japan. " Many Japanese military cadres who participated in the command of the Lugouqiao Incident , the War of Aggression against China, and the Pacific War were graduates of the school, including Class A war criminals Ishie Matsui , Field Marshal Souchi, Japanese Prime Minister Koiso Aki, and Army Secretary Sugiyama Moto .

In 1937, this problem also appeared in the entrance examination of the Army Foundation Soldier School. "The beginning of the Japanese War was the Manchurian Incident in Fengtian, China. At the time of the incident, who was the most influential in Manchuria? When and when did the Lugouqiao Incident occur? What was the reason for our army to rise?" It was issued in the same year. In the book "Army Sergeant School", this question was selected as a simulation question and the best answer was listed. The most influential person is naturally " Zhang Xueliang ". The time of the incident was "September 18, Showa." The reason for the "Japanese Army's rise" is that "both in history and in treaties, our country enjoys a legitimate right in Manchuria. Power and interests. But Chinna regards Manchuria as its own territory, and describes the special powers and interests that China should enjoy as invading territories and undermining sovereignty, and turning a blind eye to treaties, preventing our people from renting land in Manchuria and living freely in China. Many rights in forests and mining, etc., in order to support national rights, our imperial army jumped up. "

Obviously, this answer is to justify Japan's provocation of the " September 18 Incident " and to allow future military cadre candidates to memorize the "correct answer" before entering school. At the same time, these people are encouraged to kill in the future in mainland China and the Pacific. This is the case for the Army Sergeant School, as is the entrance exam for the Navy School. In the 1921 entrance examination history questionnaire, there was such a question, "Please briefly explain how North Korea, Taiwan, Huatai, Kanto Prefecture, and the Nanyang Islands were included under the rule of our government." During this period, the Japanese Navy School Among the graduates are Japanese Ambassador to the United States Yoshimura Nomura, Satoshi Nagano, who was sick and dead during the trial of the Far East International Military Tribunal, Japanese Prime Minister Minei Masahiro, and Joint Fleet Commander Yamamoto 56 .

Postwar Japan evades education in modern history

Before the war, Japanese schools, especially military schools, focused on cultivating militarism for students through textbooks, essays, and exams. What about the post-war period? A Japanese lawmaker who has long been engaged in educational research told the Global Times reporter: There is content of modern history, but the teacher basically does not teach in the classroom. Usually after the long lecture about ancient history, the excuse of "no time" is used to allow students to "self-learn" the content of modern history. There is almost no modern history in the test questions for the Japanese college entrance examination each year. The reason is that "a lot of them are inconclusive." It is worth noting that the Japanese education industry is "no talk" and "no test" for the history of Japan's past aggression against foreign countries. Turning to the "deletion" of textbooks in an attempt to erase this history is also a kind of brainwashing.

In the spring of 2014, the "Mathematics Research Press" deleted the words "comfort women in the army" and "forced conscription" in the newly published textbook. On the surface, it seems that publishers are "active" and the government is "passive" in revising textbooks. In fact, Japan ’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology revised the textbook review standard in January 2014, requiring the education sector to appropriately reflect the government ’s official opinions on the issue of “inconclusive history and territory”. Textbook publishers can apply to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for amendments to textbook content when “errors are found” or “when facts change”. Because of this, after nearly a year of hard work, "Shouyan Research Publishing" first stood out, on the one hand in response to the "call" of the government, and on the other hand as an example for industry peers.

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What is militarism? What are the characteristics of militarism?

The so-called militarism refers to advocating the use of force and military expansion, treating poor soldiers and aggressive expansion as the foundation of a nation, and putting the country under military control, so that all aspects of the life of a country such as politics, economy, culture, education, etc. serve the expansion and preparation for war and The ideological and political system of the foreign war. Germany and Japan on the eve of World War II were typical of militaristic states. Fascism is the extreme manifestation of militarism in these countries during the overall crisis. Militarism is full of cruelty and reactionaryness, and has brought great disaster to humanity. Its basic theory includes the denial of peace, insisting on war is inevitable, and even think that war itself is beautiful and fascinating . The behavior of militarism is manifested in the militarization of all aspects of a country's political, economic, and social life, as well as its aggressive foreign expansion policy. In militaristic countries, war has become the main purpose of the country.


Militarism is a kind of martialism, an ideology that regards military power as the foundation of national security and regards ensuring military power as the most important goal of society. Specifically, it refers to the promotion of military force and military expansion, the use of poor soldiers and aggression and expansion as the basis of nation-building, and the total control of the country under military control, so that all aspects of national, political, economic, cultural, and educational life can serve the expansion of military preparations and foreign wars. Ideological and political institutions.

Primitive militarism is a combination of soldiers and civilians. In order to ensure the needs of the war, farmers will be recruited for food, herdsmen will be recruited for riding animals (horses, camels, etc.), and high-density military training will be provided to the people in peacetime or behind, To ensure that there is no shortage of troops.

In modern militarism, manpower, technology, and funds are heavily invested in armaments, and the methods are similar, but the discussion of militarism education will change, with national chauvinism as the most.

Germany and Japan on the eve of World War II were typical of militaristic states. Fascism is the extreme manifestation of militarism in these countries during the overall crisis.

The Chinese word for "militarism" comes from the Japanese character "militarism" (中国 ん こ く し ゅ ぎ), which the Chinese often associate with the Japanese national policy ideas of the Second World War. However, the practice of militarism is not limited to Japan. Many historically powerful countries or regimes have military-first policies. The Soviet Union, the United States, the British Empire, North Korea, and Israel all have elements of militarism. Japanese militarism comes from the term Militarismus, which was born by liberals and socialists to criticize the French Second Empire and the German Empire.


What are the characteristics of militarism

For before and after the Second World War:

Implement the ideas and policies of warlord dictatorship and aggressive expansion to rule the country;

Suppress internal anti-war revolutionary movements and promote extreme nationalism and chauvinism;

Externally, they are in a weak position to expand their territories;

The economy aims at military development, and the government subsidizes the munitions to drive the rapid development of heavy industry; and to expand the army with the benefit of war;

The people are required to contribute selflessly to the country, and private rights, human rights, and freedom of expression are suppressed;

Politically centralized system, the parliament and the judiciary cannot effectively balance the government;

The cabinet is occupied by military personnel;

Education uses military training, xenophobia, and national superiority as teaching materials developed from an early age;

People's daily life is often mobilized and interfered with by military forces, and buildings and public facilities are widely fortified;

The general conscription system has a long service life and is registered regardless of male or female. If necessary, juveniles who have not reached the age of military service will be recruited into the army for combat or tasks;

Praise the soldiers 'contributions, respect the soldiers' social status, and even beautify the soldiers and wars at the levels of history, archeology , religion, literature, and art;

Diplomacy bullies neighboring areas with military superiority in order to seek practical benefits and international status;

The government touts its interests after the aggression and plunder, and stimulates the people's enthusiasm for the war to ensure public support for the war.


What are the typical representatives of militarism

1.The ancient Greek city-state Sparta (late 7th century BC-396 AD)

2.The Japanese Empire from the Meiji Restoration to the Second World War (1868--1945)

After the Meiji Restoration of Japan in 1868, while developing capitalism, it quickly embarked on the path of militarism. Promote militarism education with loyalty to the Emperor as the core, expand military preparations under the slogan of "rich nations and strong soldiers"; formulate aggression plans for the outside world, and declare that the power of the Great Japanese Empire will be spread to the Quartet, and the world will be conquered by war of aggression . From the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, Japan did not stop its aggressive expansion of China, North Korea, and the entire Asia-Pacific region. Only after World War II did the Japanese militarism rule completely collapse. Today, with the rise of right-wing forces, some people have demanded that the SDF be upgraded to the National Defense Forces. On December 16, 2012, Japan will usher in the House election. Foreign media published a commentary article stating that the participating political parties in Japan incited nationalism and militarism, with anti-China sentiments, using the Diaoyu Island issue and constitutional amendment as slogans, showing the right-wing atmosphere of Japanese politics.

On October 16, 2012, Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda publicly stated that he planned to redefine "the right to self-defense" and intended to amend the constitution.

On the afternoon of February 15, 2013, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, when attending the LDP's constitutional amendment and promotion headquarters meeting, stated that the constitutional amendment was positioned as "a major issue to be resolved" and showed his strong willingness to achieve constitutional amendment during his term of office.

3.German Empire during Hitler (1933--1945)

After A. Hitler established the fascist regime in Germany in 1933, he frantically expanded and prepared for war. The rapid development of the arms industry; the implementation of universal compulsory military service throughout the country, the expansion of the regular army to 600,000 people, including powerful air and naval forces; meanwhile, propaganda of chauvinism, national hatred, especially anti-Semitism, and expansion of the "living space" public opinion. Germany under Hitler's militarism finally became one of the sources of World War II.

In modern times, some people advocate that the Japanese government and some civil society organizations adopt a militaristic system. Such criticisms are most common in areas such as the Western Pacific Rim, East Asia, and Southeast Asia that were once invaded by Japan during World War II.

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Militarism and "military doctrine" both correspond to the English vocabulary "Militarism" and the Japanese vocabulary "military doctrine (ぐ ん こ く し ゅ ぎ)". However, the understanding of this term by Chinese users may be different. Different views: Militarism and martial arts are concepts of "congruence" and can be mixed. Militarism is an extreme form of martialism. Militarism is martialism, but it is often used in specific countries (such as the Japanese Empire).

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