在线一本码道高清

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Kang Qian Sheng Shi

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The Kanggan Prosperous Age, also known as the Kang Yonggan Prosperous Age, the Kang Yonggan Prosperity, and the Kanggan Prosperity, was the last prosperous age of the ancient feudal dynasty in China, and it was also a reflection of the feudal society in China. During this period, Emperor Kangxi , Yongzheng and Qianlong experienced three generations of emperors . It lasted 134 years and was the highest peak of Qing rule. During this period, all aspects of Chinese society reached the extreme within the framework of the original system and had the most reforms. The country has the strongest national strength, social stability, rapid economic development, rapid population growth, and vast territory. [3] In historical circles and textbooks in Taiwan and other places, this period is called the rule of Kanggan. Western traditional historians have different views on this, and those who support it call this period "High Qing", the peak period of the Qing Dynasty. Those who did not support pointed out that the rigidity of the system and the seclusion of the country during this period made this situation impossible. There is a huge crisis hidden in the flourishing situation, political corruption and social contradictions are intensifying, various signs of decline are gradually revealed, and the ability of the Qing court to govern and manage is gradually weakening.

Kang Qian Sheng Shi

The Prosperous Age of Kanggan——The Last Prosperity of Chinese Feudal Dynasty

Kang Qiansheng: the last heyday in the history of Chinese feudal dynasty

The Kanggan Prosperous Age, also known as the Kang Yonggan Prosperous Age, the Kang Yonggan Prosperity, and the Kanggan Prosperity, was the last prosperous age of the ancient feudal dynasty in China, and it was also a reflection of the feudal society in China.

During this period, Emperor Kangxi , Yongzheng and Qianlong experienced three generations of emperors . It lasted 134 years and was the highest peak of Qing rule. During this period, all aspects of Chinese society reached the extreme within the framework of the original system and had the most reforms. The country has the strongest national strength, social stability, rapid economic development, rapid population growth, and vast territory.

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In the historical circles and textbooks in Taiwan and other places, this period is called the rule of Kanggan. Western traditional historians have different views on this, and those who support it call this period "High Qing", the peak period of the Qing Dynasty. Those who did not support pointed out that the rigidity of the system and the seclusion of the country during this period made this situation impossible.

There is a huge crisis hidden in the flourishing situation, political corruption and social contradictions are intensifying, various signs of decline are gradually revealed, and the ability of the Qing court to govern and manage is gradually weakening. Various civil uprisings in the late Qianlong period also marked the beginning of the decline of the Qing Dynasty, and the Qing Dynasty fell into the depression and the deserted Jiadao.

The Prosperous Age of Kang Qian was also a controversial period, and there is still controversy in the academic circles as to whether the "Prosperous Age of Kang Qian" really exists.

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Decryption: What kind of historical background did the Kang Dynasty in the Qing Dynasty have?

In 1644, after Emperor Chongzhen was in the state of Meishan, the Qing regent king Dole was proclaimed in the name of "Revenge for Ming" Eight Banners occupied Beijing and replaced Li Zicheng ’s Dashun regime, the last feudal dynasty in Chinese history, The Qing Dynasty begins. Subsequently, the Qing Army moved south, defeating the forces of Nanming, the Peasant Army, and the San Francisco and gradually unifying the country.

In the early years of the Qing Dynasty, due to decades of war, production was severely damaged. "People have been brutally killed, and the fields have become hills." Arable ". In order to strengthen the centralized rule and alleviate the increasingly intensified ethnic contradictions, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty had to implement some economic recovery measures.

After Kangxi pro-government, he announced that he would stop enclosures and relax the tax exemption period for wasteland reclamation. In the 50th year of Kangxi, the Qing dynasty imposed no population tax, that is, population tax, and only collected land rent, but some people only restored it. The old system of the Ming Dynasty . Kangxi also announced that "the breeder Ding never added endowments" and introduced foreign crops, which greatly increased the population of the Qing Dynasty. He successively appointed Jin Fu and Yu Jackie to govern the Yellow River and the Grand Canal. During the six southern inspections, Kangxi inspected folk customs and personally supervised the river workers. The handicraft industry severely damaged by the war has gradually recovered and developed. In order to stabilize the social order, he issued 16 holy shrines, asking local people to follow the villagers' instructions. In addition, in order to eliminate the ethnic awareness and speech control of scholars, Text prison , to Yongzheng and This situation aggravated during the Qianlong period. In the late Kangxi period, the officials' salary was too low and the law was too wide, which led to the corruption of the government officials, and the repeated abolition of the prince also led to the chaos of the party. At the end of Kangxi's death in 1722, Ye , that is, Emperor Yongzheng.

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After the reign of Yongzheng, he took remedial measures against the malpractices of the Kangxi period. He appointed Zhang Tingyu, Ertai, Tian Wenjing and Li Wei. Yongzheng also professed that he "did the world first with diligence" and "be careful with the world" and said that he was diligent in politics. He set up a military office in the central government to strengthen the imperial power and correct the memorials himself. Weaken the power of the prince, pay attention to the education of the prince, and adopt a secret reserve system to prevent the princes from competing for the position. The special agents dispatched by Yongzheng were everywhere to monitor local affairs. He had the words and deeds of his officials in his hands, and the closed-fold system was perfected during this period. However, Yongzheng also repeatedly controlled the freedom of speech by writing prisons. Into acres to reduce the burden of the landless poor. In order to solve the problem of local corruption, it is recommended to return to the public, and the cost of envy will be calculated by the central government; a silver bank will be set up to raise the salaries of local officials. However, when Yongzheng was in office, he received the assistance of Long Kodo. Nian Yaoyao settled the chaos in Qinghai to stabilize the political situation. Later, due to some reasons, he gave Nianyao Yao and Long Kedu the imprisonment. The death of Emperor Yongzheng in 1735, his son Hongli succeeded the emperor, Qianlong Emperor.

During the Qianlong period, the martial arts of the Qing Dynasty became extremely prosperous. After Emperor Qianlong succeeded Emperor Kangxi and the strictness of Emperor Yongzheng, he governed with "combination of breadth and fierceness". The silk and cotton industries in Jiangnan and Guangdong are very developed here, and the porcelain in Jingdezhen has reached a historical peak. At the same time, the silver trumpet appeared in Shanxi. During the Qianlong period, the territory of the Qing Dynasty was the largest, reaching more than 13 million square kilometers. Emperor Qianlong praised himself for his complete martial arts. He calmed down the size and chaos between Junggar and Huijiang, and continued to Sichuan and Guizhou Change the soil and return . Western missionaries introduced Chinese culture to Europeans, triggering a Chinese-style upsurge in the 18th century. Europeans worship Chinese culture, thought and art.

In the late Qianlong period, Emperor Qianlong favored corrupt officials Kindred , officials corrupted and made politics worse; written prison was also worsened; six trips to the south of the Yangtze River were overspread and disturbed the people, and successive years of battles caused serious losses to the national treasury; closed-door policies caused the Qing Dynasty to gradually lag behind the world; the population explosion and rural areas at that time Land mergers were serious, and many farmers lost their land. Civilian outbreaks continued in Jiaqing , the national strength of the Qing Dynasty was gradually declining to the end of the 18th century, the end of the Kangyong Dynasty, and negative comments appeared in the West. The British envoy, Makarni, who broke up with Emperor Qianlong thought that the Qing Dynasty had fallen. Emperor Qianlong in 1795 vowed to lay Zen Alas , Jiaqing Emperor. Emperor Qianlong died in 1799, and Emperor Jiaqing was able to govern himself. However, the Emperor Jiaqing failed to resolve the disadvantages and the Qing Dynasty continued to decline.

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Decryption: How much historical territory did China have during the Kang and Qian period?

During the Kang and Qian period, the territory of the Qing Dynasty expanded several times. By the time Qianlong was settled in Xinjiang, the entire territory of the Qing Empire had reached an unprecedented expansion, second only to the Yuan.

From the north to the south of Waixinganling, the northeast to the North Sea, the east to Sakhalin Island, and the west to the east of Lake Balkhash, it inherited the border of the Junggar Khanate in 1758, forming an unprecedented "great unification" multi-ethnic country. Said "there has been nothing since Han and Tang dynasties".

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During Qianlong's reign, Su Lu of the Spice Islands asked for attachment. Qianlong Emperor was far from allowed. Emperor Qianlong sent Ming Antu and others to Xinjiang to carry out surveying and mapping twice. On the basis of the "Comprehensive Map of Huang Yu", he painted "Map of Qianlong's Internal Government."

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Decryption: What kind of political measures did the Qing Dynasty have during the Kang and Qian periods?

The monarchy in the Kangqian period reached a historical peak. Kangxi began to rectify the administration of officials and restore the assessment system such as Beijing Cha, and Da Ji; he sent confidants (namely, family slaves) such as Cao Yin and Li Xi to explore local prices, people's income, and official and gentry misconduct, and played in secret. Bao, this is the budding of the close-fold system, and it has been perfected during the Yongzheng period.

In the central government, due to the emperor's admiration for the arbitrariness of the cadres, the cabinet was rendered useless. At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the form of council discussion was maintained. Kangxi established the Southern Study Room, which in fact became the Emperor's confidential secretariat. During the Yongzheng period, the Military Aircraft Division was set up as the highest decision-making body of the government, and the Minister of Military Aircraft was also "knee-recorded." During the Qianlong period, the Council of Ministers of Parliament was directly cancelled, and all political power was in the hands of the emperor, which became the pinnacle of the centralized system in the Qing Dynasty . Although there was no prime minister in the Ming and Qing dynasties, cabinet scholars in the Ming dynasty had the prime minister, and only the cabinet college scholars and military ministers in the Qing dynasty had the prime minister. It can be seen that the Qing Dynasty had strict control over ministers. The three generations of emperors made full use of secret interviews, secret folds, and other methods to seek secret control and secret management to maximize social control.

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local

The Qing Dynasty set up governors in each province (some provinces also had governors), and this system was established during the Yongzheng period. The governor and governor have great power. They have military and political power in one or more provinces. However, there were strict monitoring systems and measures in the Qing Dynasty (including the system of royal history and closed accounts). It is allegiance to the central government.

The political system of the Kangqian period has always maintained efficient work efficiency, and no local supervision of the rebellion has occurred. Even under the aggression of the great powers, the country has not been divided. It can be seen that the political system formulated by Kangqian is effective.

However, when European and American countries stepped onto democratic regimes and eliminated autocratic systems, the three Emperors of the Kang and Qian Dynasties tightened their power step by step. In the 18th century, the development of China's monarchy system reached its peak. This system lacks restraint and supervision mechanisms, and an excessively centralized system severely hinders the development of capitalism. At this time, Kang Qiansheng was a different story. Officials sought power for personal gain and traded power and money. Corruption and bribery are endless, which ultimately not only stagnates the development of traditional Chinese society, but also severely hinders China's transformation from traditional to modern. With the drastic changes in the international situation, the Qing Dynasty was on the verge of slaughter by Western powers. It can be seen from this that although Kang Yongqian's political system was effective, it was out of date and he drove backwards.

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Decryption: How did the military of the Qing Dynasty Kangqian turn from prosperity to decline?

Weapon development

In the post-Golden period, a large number of guns and ammunition armed forces were seized in the Ming Dynasty , and the rulers also ordered the surrendered Han officers and soldiers to "prepare" a certain number of artillery to strengthen the attacking force and practice new tactics. Order the army to build red cannons, and transform a single cavalry unit into an army of cavalry, artillery, and infantry.

In the 27th year of Emperor Kangxi (1688), Emperor Kangxi felt that the power of firearms was huge, and formally established a firearm camp. There are 16 birdgun guards and 24 birdguns to serve as commanders. In the battle between the Qing Army and Gardan, the leader of the Jungar Khanate, the Qing Army won a major victory by blasting Gardan's "Camel City" tactics with iron cannons and son-and-child artillery. The accompanying missionary Zhang Cheng had the following record: "Each musketeer's camp was lined with eight artillery guns. The same was the gun we had taken to Nibuchu. Two of them were large field guns. Look, the workmanship is fine, and it is also gold-plated; there are two small mortars, a total of 64 small field artillery, eight spectacular medium-sized artillery and eight mortars. "

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Military decline

The unification of the country demonstrates the strong military strength of the Qing government. However, with the gradual stability of the domestic society, the Qing government's army has gradually become corrupt, training has been abolished, and its equipment is backward. Compared with western countries, China's military strength is far behind.

In Kangxi's pacification of the " San Francisco Rebellion", the Eight Banners military discipline has been dispersed, and the military strength is not as good as before. Later, whenever there was war in the Qing court, it mainly relied on green camps. However, 600,000 green camp soldiers also quickly degenerate in a deteriorating social environment: detained troops, collusion between bandits, corruption and fullness, and a host of malpractices. They have also been reduced to superficial and can only frighten civilians. When the emperor Jiaqing was the emperor, he had paraded with the emperor Qianlong , but what he saw was the situation of "archery, arrows firing; horses, people falling to the ground".

When Magalni came to the Qing dynasty at the time, he was impressed by the depletion of armaments. When the mission arrived in Zhenjiang, the Qing Army held a huge welcome exercise. However, Margarnie found that the Qing wall was on the verge of collapse, and the soldiers were not uniformly dressed. The main equipment of the team was cold weapons such as bows, arrows, halberds, spears, and swords. Few backward-looking muskets have also been worn out. Therefore, instead of being intimidated, the British concluded that "Chinese society has been stuck and cannot move forward", "its prosperity has ended" and "it is easy to land here".

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Demystification: What kind of economic development did the Qing Dynasty Kanggan prosperity have?

During the Kangqian period, the state treasury had sufficient fiscal reserves. The highest year reached 80 million renminbi, and it remained at 60 to 70 million renminbi throughout the year. China's GDP has recovered to one third of the world's, and large-scale free money-free grains were used. Kangxi and Qianlong have waived the country's agricultural money and grains for nearly 300 million silver five times. At that time, China's industrial output accounted for 32% of the world; even after the industrial revolution, China and India's manufacturing skills were backward, but they did not seem to be far behind any European countries.

Compared with Western Britain, the economy of the Kangqian period was far less important in the international economy in terms of quality, production relations, and foreign trade. In order to restrict the development of land merger and commercial capital and restore agricultural production since the late Ming Dynasty, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty adopted the policy of "emphasizing agriculture and restraining business", controlling, suppressing, and cracking down on industry and commerce. Cash crops such as mulberry are only allowed to be planted "where grains cannot be grown". Crops other than grain must be banned, not to mention business. In fact, the imperial court imposed high taxes on private handicrafts, purchased them at low prices, and paid them free of charge; politically, they restricted their opening, or controlled their circulation, or strictly restricted workers, or designated franchised merchants. Development has done everything possible to suppress obstruction. The feudal bureaucracy abused the power of prostitution, and the industrial and commercial people did not have the power to confront it openly. They could only stay at the feet of the regime. Although the population of the six major cities in China at that time exceeded that of the world's most advanced London, Western cities were based on industry and commerce, and merchants and artisanal owners played a significant role in politics. Participation in city management and budget review has never been in China. appear. The prosperity of most cities in China depends on the consumption of officials, landlords, the army and its affiliates, not mainly on industrial manufacturing and remote trade. The Emperor of the Qing Dynasty believed that prospering the business was not in accordance with the ancestors' laws, nor was it beneficial to the country. He stated that "investing and opening a factory ... it is not feasible" and "except forbidden by the mining factory, there is no further discussion", which suppresses the sprout of capitalism.

Although the population in the Kangqian period was several times that of the Ming Dynasty , the total output of two index industrial products, iron and cloth, has never recovered to the level of the end of the Ming Dynasty. By 1840, China's industrial output was only 6% of the world's. Neither the total output nor the proportion in the world is lower than the end of Ming Dynasty 200 years ago. Regardless of the qualitative or quantitative prosperity, the prosperous times of the Qing Dynasty were far behind that of the Ming Dynasty , and there was a rare tendency of comprehensive decadence and collapse in history.

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agriculture

Land reclamation

During the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, humans were in the Little Ice Age and affected by solar activity. Global food crop production generally declined, and in some areas, "people in exile ten to seven, and ten acres of land only plant one or two acres." However, due to the extensive cultivation of the high-yield crop of sweet potatoes introduced by Xu Guangqi of the Ming Dynasty, the harvest of the crops was guaranteed, and this period also became the peak period of the development of the Qing Dynasty.

In the future, the continuous development of agricultural production will be first manifested in the large-scale reclamation of wasteland and the expansion of cultivated land area. In the twenty-four years of Kangxi, there were 600 million mu of arable land in the country. When Emperor Qianlong died, the country's cultivated land was about 1.05 billion mu.

Increased food production

With the advancement of land reclamation and agricultural planting methods, food production has also increased significantly. After harvesting early rice in some areas of Guangdong, late rice was inserted; after harvesting late rice, rapeseed or sweet potatoes were planted, and three times a year. Jiangxi has a thin soil. After the early rice is harvested, late rice cannot be planted. Buckwheat is grown twice a year. Thanks to the promotion of multi-cooked cultivation in the south, the annual output of grain will increase by more than 6 billion kilograms.

The number of farmers specializing in vegetable production has increased. Vegetable farmers in the suburbs of Beijing use equipment such as "fire chambers" and "cellars" to cultivate fresh vegetables such as chives and cucumbers in winter and sell them on the market. During the Qianlong period, nine out of ten areas in Hebei that originally did not grow cotton accounted for 10%. In the early Qing Dynasty, sugarcane was planted throughout the provinces along the southeast coast. Sugarcane planted in some parts of Guangdong is often linked into thousands of hectares.

The grain output of the Qing Dynasty doubled more than that of the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, and the national grain output increased to 204 billion kilograms. At that time, Barrow, who came to China with the British delegation of Macartney, estimated that China's grain harvest rate was higher than that of the United Kingdom, and the wheat harvest rate was 15: 1. At the time, in Europe, Britain, which ranked first in grain harvest rate, was only 10: 1. The economic and population growth of the Qing Dynasty was also mainly attributed to the vigorous promotion of the American plant corn, sweet potatoes and potatoes.

Rich country and poor people

Despite the increase in food production, the Magarney delegation came to China, and they immediately found alarming poverty. At the first sight of the Chinese mission, some of the dead pigs and chickens were thrown away, and they scrambled to jump into the sea to catch the British discards. After receiving the leftovers of the mission, the Chinese always greedily greeted for the tea they used. During the Qianlong period, the people's eating of bran-powdered food was everywhere. At the same period, ordinary British farmers can spend 11 pounds a year, which is about 33-44 silver. A middle-class Chinese farmer has a total income of only 32 yuan per year, and an annual expenditure of 35 yuan. That is to say, a hard year and 3 debts in order to survive, there is no production surplus at all. [66] Therefore, once famine is encountered, ordinary people will immediately go bankrupt, and it is very common to sell children and daughters.

handicraft

Silk industry

The silk industry played an important role in the handicraft industry in the Qing Dynasty . During the middle and late period of Kangxi, handicraft industry gradually recovered and developed. At that time, the silk industry was very developed in Jiangning, Suzhou, Hangzhou, Foshan, Guangzhou and other places. Jiangning's looms reached more than 30,000 in dry and good times, and there are many improvements over the past. "The satin weaving machine has more than 100 names." Even in remote Guizhou, the silk industry has also developed greatly. In Daoguang , the Zunyi silk in Guizhou "continued to compete with Wu Chen and Shu Jin in Zhongzhou", which attracted merchants from Qin, Jin, Fujian and Guangdong provinces to buy and traffic. The Qing Dynasty set up a weaving gate in the local area, which hindered the normal development of the Jiangnan silk industry to a certain extent.

Cotton industry

The cotton industry in the Qing Dynasty was also increasingly developed in some areas in the south of the Yangtze River. Cotton textile tools have been significantly improved. For example, the spinning carts in Shanghai can be "three hands in one hand, with full wheels (namely carts). There are also some improvements and innovations in the loom. The quantity and quality of cotton production at that time were much higher than before. Shanghai's "Saobu, quilt world, Liang Jiaduo started." Suzhou's "Yimi brand", because of its reputation as "Beimei, users compete in the market", "a year of cloth consumption, about a million horses", resulting in "ten years of wealth and business, and cloth is more common all over the world" "In the two hundred years, the southern Yunnan and the northern Mobe, all the land is not only beauty but also beauty." Sub's "Name Quartet" shows its wide credibility. Wuxi is also rich in cotton cloth. In Qianlong, it was "received by Jia, bundled and traded in Huai, Yang, Gao, Bao, etc., and traded at the age of one, no less than a few million", known as "cloth wharf".

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Declassification: What kind of cultural achievements did the Kang Dynasty in the Qing Dynasty have?

On the one hand, the Qing court guided intellectuals to study only Confucian classics, imperial examinations , and examinations. They should take Zhu Zi's annotations as a guideline, "do not agree with Zhu Zi, and attack them with a drummer ." On the other hand, adopt high-pressure policies and Daxing prison The harm to a large number of literati and bachelors banned the people's thinking to a certain extent. . Intellectuals had no choice but to devote themselves to the ancient books and scrutinize and testify. The idea of imprisonment is actually the creativity of imprisonment. When human beings from tradition to modernity need to open their eyes to look at the world, the traditional ideology and value system that dominates China's future are as silent as a pool of standing water. In this "quietness", China cannot fail to become a laggard of the times.

Emperor Kangxi attached great importance to the scholar scholars of the Han nationality. He held many scholarly scholarships, established the Southern Study System, and taught missionaries in China to learn Western science and culture. During the Qianlong period, Hongjian was academic, but his Kaibo civics were not whitewashed. Because of too many restrictions, the talents obtained were not as good as Kangxi's civics. Many books were published during this period, such as "History of the Three Links", "Three Links of the Dynasty" and "The Qing Dynasty Classics" and other historical books; the famous novels " Dream of Red Mansions ", " Liao Zhai Zhi Yi " and "Ru Lin Wai Shi", etc .; 1773 It also ordered the compilation of the "Siku Quanshu" and "Integration of Ancient and Modern Books" to become the world's largest category of books, all of which have become cultural signs of the flourishing age. However, in order to maintain the rule, he strictly controlled his thoughts. During the compilation, he took the opportunity to split and burn a large number of books that did not conform to his thoughts. In addition, Daxingzi prison caused people such as Dai Mingshi to be killed or exiled by Zhulian. All these have severely hindered the thinking of literati and delayed the development of culture.

thought

Scholars and scholars in the early Qing Dynasty were dissatisfied with national oppression and autocratic rule, and there were relatively common national thoughts against the Qing, and some people had progressive democratic thoughts. The poetic writers of this period are mainly Ming survivors who hold such ideas. Huang Zongxi, Gu Yanwu and Wang Fuzhi were the most outstanding thinkers and scholars in this period. Their prose, with deep skill, expressed strong national and democratic thoughts of different degrees, surpassed the achievements of late Ming prose, and showed a brand new look; their poems are also high in character. Important surviving poets include Guizhuang, Du Jun, Wu Jiaji, Yan Ermei, Qian Chengzhi, Qu Dajun, and Chen Gongyin. The important theme of the adhering poetry is to reflect the national contradictions and to show patriotism; Yan Ermei, Qian Chengzhi, and Wu Jiaji more often reflected the social and class contradictions of the time. In style, each has its own characteristics.

For intellectuals and some of the germination of thoughts that might endanger the rule of the Qing Dynasty , the rulers of the Kanggan era adopted the word prison method, and there were only 130 word prisons during the Qianlong period. The endless movement of writing prisons wiped out all the heretical ideas that the rulers of the Qing Dynasty believed.

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literature

Poetry

Most of the scribes in the late Kangxi period grew up in the Qing Dynasty. In this period, poetry no longer focuses on the expression of national and class contradictions, but instead focuses on the pursuit of artistic skills. The content is mainly lyrical and ancient.

Famous poets include Shi Zhangzhang, Song Zhe, Wang Shizhen, Zhu Yizun, Zha Shenxing, Zhao Zhixin, and so on. Wang Shizhen is the leader of the Shen Yun School. Cha Shenxing's poems portrayed Seiko and achieved great results. Zhao Zhixin is more focused on reflecting reality.

Fiction

The novels radiate a great luster peculiar to this period. "Ru Lin Wai Shi" carried out a comprehensive disclosure and a sarcastic satire on the feudal examination system of the Eight-Stranded Scholars. Although it uses exaggerated techniques, it reflects the profound reality of "satirical life is real". Its humorous and unsophisticated language art can also be "quick and harmonious, ridiculous and sarcastic", full of implicitness, and it is the longest-running satirical novel in ancient China. "Dream of Red Mansions" through the love tragedy of Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu and the storyline of Jia Fu from prosperity to decline, reflects the decay of the life of the bureaucrat and landlord, shows the conflict between the democratic ideas of the rebellious youth and traditional ideology, and reveals the feudal rule The decline of class and feudal society. It has refined a large number of characters with profound typical meaning and distinctive personality through the description of daily life trivia and the inner world of characters. The portrayal is delicate, the atmosphere is rich, and the language is beautiful. It has become the peak of Chinese classical novels with great achievements in thought and art.

Short note-writing novels, such as Ji Yun 's "Reading of Caotangtang" and Yuan Mei's "New Qixie", all have less achievements than the previous "Liao Zhai Zhi Yi". The rulers of the Qing Dynasty during the Kangqian period brought together many experts and scholars to compile large cultural books such as the "Kangxi Dictionary", "Ancient and Modern Books Integration", and "Siku Quanshu", which became China's precious cultural heritage. However, the Qing rulers also destroyed many books. Is a major sin.

Textual studies

The decline of academic culture is a significant trend in Chinese culture during the Kang and Qian periods. Academics at all times is the concentrated expression of objective social life in the spiritual realm. Unlike the seemingly "prosperous" social situation, the academic culture of the Kangqian period showed a dying climate that was out of step with the heyday. The emergence of textual research with the important characteristics of the history of textbooks and examinations is promoting academic development in a boring direction. The corruption of textual research on Qing dynasty scholarship is not only manifested in that it completely ruined the development of ancient philosophy, but also in that it promoted the intellectual world to enter the " archeological period" thoroughly. The Qing court defended the people more than Fangchuan, created hundreds of literal prisons, and also migrated many intellectuals to the poor mountains and rivers of Manchuria. As a result, Bagu and the research evidence thrived.

painting

The paintings of Kang Qian period also developed greatly, and the achievements of figure painting were also the most outstanding. At the same time, in the developed commodity economy of Yangzhou, a new artistic trend was set off, and the Yangzhou School of Painting represented by the Eight Monsters of Yangzhou was formed, which has had a profound impact on modern flowers and birds.

Technology

During the Kang and Qian period, the Qing government attached considerable importance to astronomy. From Shunzhi to Qianlong, missionaries made and added a lot of astronomical instruments such as the equatorial longitude and latitude, the ecliptic longitude and latitude, and Jian Pingyi. At the same time, related astronomical academic works appeared and improved And compiled a more advanced calendar. Western physics knowledge has been spreading in China since the end of the Ming Dynasty. Scholars from the Kangxi period Dai Zhen wrote works on Archimedes' law, and the missionary Nan Huairen authored "The Xi Dynasty's Final Case" and introduced various projects. In addition to technical works, he has also written books on western optics that have had a certain impact on the Chinese physics community, such as "Gas Illustrated Diagrams" and "Sharp Reasoning", and to some extent inspired some scholars to study Optics, for example, Sun Yunqiu who wrote the book "Mirror History" in Kangxi and Zheng Fuguang who wrote "Mirror Mirror" in the early nineteenth century; in the treatment of Western objects, there were many scholars, craftsmen and scientists in the Qing Dynasty For example, Huang Luzhuang, Huang Lu, Sun Xuanqiu, etc. have some research and high imitations of western "miracles". Western "miracles" have also promoted the development of China's physical experiments and mechanical manufacturing to a certain extent.

In addition, during the Kangxi reign, many medically-savvy missionaries, such as Zhang Cheng and Bai Jin, taught Western medicine to China, and were allowed to teach anatomical knowledge in courts and laboratories. French missionary Bartomin used the Manchu language to translate human anatomy and named it "The Complete Collection of King James Version". Barthomin and Bai Jin also translated works on human blood circulation with the support of Kangxi, and in Beijing Disseminate relevant knowledge. Western medical knowledge and theories have also attracted the attention of Chinese medical circles. For example, in the early Qing Dynasty, Liu Xianting studied Western medical writings such as figure illustrations, and the medical scientist Wang Qingren, who wrote "Medical Forest Correction" during the Qianlong period, also attached great importance to anatomy. : "Unknown viscera in the book, isn't it a foolish dream , and treating the unknown viscera is nothing like a blind night!"

However, the level of science and technology was not high during the Kangxi period, and the level of productivity was still low. In mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, and biology, China was almost two centuries later than the West until the second half of the 19th century. The advanced scientific knowledge was slowly introduced to China.

In 1792 (57th year of Qianlong), the British envoy Makarni wanted to win goodwill by showing the most advanced technology, and then successfully achieve diplomatic purposes. Among the gifts to Qianlong's 80th birthday, there are 29 types of celestial globes, globes, watermelon cannons, copper cannons, various artillery guns, Western ship models, telescopes, and the latest British steam engines, cotton spinning machines, and weaving machines. . Guards were also brought in to perform modern artillery equipment. The Qing court only regarded it as a "tribute" and "play well" collection, and gave it a play reward or contempt. It did not even think of the meaning of science and technology here and its military value. However, the Qing court dismissed it . Refusing to watch drills and modern weapons demonstrations by the British Guards, the emperors and ministers reacted indifferently to these modern technologies. Makalni had invited the Qing army general Fukang An to review the British regiment's exercise of new weapons drills. Fukang An refused to say: "You can see it or not. This firearm operation is not unusual."

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Declassification: What kind of national policy did the Qing Dynasty carry out during the prosperous period of the Qing Dynasty?

North and Northwest

Mongolia was divided into four parts in the early Qing Dynasty. Among them, the Junggar Khanate was friendly with Tsarist Russia, its Khangardan destroyed Yeeryu Khanate and Qinghai Heshuote, and occupied Kalkha Mongolia, and the three Khalkhas went south to the Qing Dynasty . During the Emperor Kangxi's reign, he first sent Sabu Su at the Battle of Yaksa to expel the Russian army that invaded Heilongjiang, and signed the Nibuchu treaty with Russia to establish the northeast border and obtain Russia's neutrality. Then from 1690 to 1697, the battle of Ulan Butong and the three conquests of Gardan killed Gardan, established the Duolun League to protect Kalkha Mongolia, and merged Kalkha Mongolia into the Qing Dynasty.

During the Yongzheng period, the Chaktu Treaty was signed with Tsarist Russia in 1727, establishing the border of Northern Cyprus. In 1729, Yongzheng obeyed Zhang Tingyu's suggestion, and divided Fulu Dan and Yue Zhongqi into two divisions in Kobdo to fight against Junggar Khangardan, and finally defeated in the battle with Tongbo. In 1732, Kaldanze made a zero-east expedition to Kalkha Mongolia, and he arrived at Mount Aihang, defeated by Prince Khalka. In 1734, the Qingzhun peace talks were bounded by the Altai Mountains, and the northwest was generally peaceful.

In the Qianlong period, the sons of the northwestern Junggar contended. Emperor Qianlong took the opportunity to send Amursana as a guide in 1755. He led the army of Dingbei Band to calm down Junggar and captured Yili. Later, Amulsana wanted to become the master of the new Junggar, and rebelled because he did not have the support of Emperor Qianlong. Emperor Qianlong sent Zhaohui to the Western Expedition. Finally, in 1757, the Tianshan North Road was settled. Junggar died and his family was extinct. However, on the South Tianshan Road, the size of the Hui leader and the Zhuo brothers who broke away from the Junggar rule went against the Qing, and the history called the chaos of size and Zhuo. Its leaders, Branidun and Huo Jizhan, occupied Kashgar and Yeerzhen with the intention of becoming independent. In 1758, Emperor Qianlong ordered the Zhaohui Western Expedition. Zhaohui led a light army to cross the desert to siege Yeeryu (now Xinjiang Shache), but was surrounded by Heishuiying. The following year the Qing led Fude's army to siege, Zhaohui and Fude finally defeated the small and large, and made Central Asian countries west of the Pamirs become vassal states.

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Qinghai-Tibet area

The Heshuote Khanate in the Qinghai-Tibet region assisted Huang Jiao Dalai V to defeat the Red Religion and unified Tibet, and later split into Qinghai and Tibet Heshuote. At the time of Dalai VI, Tibetan affairs were managed by Diba (Council Minister) Sang Jiejiawo. He joined Junggar to fight against Tibetan Heshuite Lazang Khan. Lazhang Khan first killed Sang Jiejiawo and abolished the Dalai Lama. VI. In 1717, Gardan's nephew, Cedar Alabut, invaded Tibet, attacked Lhazhan Khan, and occupied Lhasa. The Qing Army and the Paramilitary Army fought many times. Finally, it was successfully expelled by the army in 1720, assisting Dalai VII to enter Tibet, and managing the Tibetan area by the former Lachen Khan.

In the early years of the Yongzheng period, Prince Qinghai Robb Zangdanjin attempted to rejuvenate the Heshuote Khan Kingdom, and the following year, Yao Yao and Yue Zhongqi and others calmed down. For this reason, Emperor Yongzheng occupied part of the Xikang area, and set up ministers and resident ministers in Xining and Lhasa to manage the Qinghai-Tibet area.

At the end of Qianlong, Nepal's Gurkha Kingdom invaded Tibet twice. In 1793, the Qing court sent Fukang'an and Hai Lancha to lead troops to Tibet, pacified Gurkha, Bhutan and Zhe Mengxiong (now Sikkim) were also vassal states, and strengthened the power of ministers in Tibet.

Southwest Region

Yongzheng obeyed Ertai's suggestion to promote the reform of the land, to abolish the toasts with autonomous nature, and to manage ethnic minorities with local officials.

In the early years of Qianlong, Zhang Guangsi was dispatched to quell the Miao people's rebellion in Guizhou, and then the Qing army went to Pingding to riot in Jinchuan (now Jinchuan County and Xiaojin County, Sichuan Province). The battle of Dajinchuan occurred between 1747 and 1749, and the Qing Army suffered from it. The Second Battle of Jinchuan broke out in 1771. Nuomu, a large and small Jinchuan, and Sangge, the monks, rebelled. The Qing defeated Wenfu, and Agui went through many battles until Fang Ping was settled in 1776.

Disadvantage

For a long time after the Qing dynasty seized state power, the Chinese nations it had conquered were regarded as conquered, and a national coercion policy was implemented. Emphasize that Manchu and Han are not allowed to marry; build a racial separation wall, prohibit Han people from going to the northeast, and Mongolian civilians from entering the Han country. This has caused ethnic discrimination. Although the reform and return of the country has strengthened the state's management of the border areas, it has exacerbated the contradictions between the central and minority regions, and has caused many uprisings of the border people. In addition, the return of the country is only in the form, only "Changed the official name, people are still, one surname is Tu Huang."

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Decryption: What kind of foreign policy was implemented during the Kang and Qian times?

Surrounding vassals

The Qing Dynasty inherited the view of the Han dynasty from the perspective of the world, focusing on the Huairou distant people and foreigners, but they took strict precautions. The countries that paid tribute to them during the Kangkan period were North Korea, Ryukyu, Annan, Namhang (Laos), Siam (Thailand), Myanmar, Gurkha (Nepal), Dzong Mengxiong (Sikkim), Bhutan, Haohan, Kazakhstan, Blut, Bukhar, Badakshank, Aihan (Afghanistan), Sulu, Borol, Margarang, Khamti, Andijan, Namukan, Lanfang Republic, etc.

During the Qianlong period, the surrounding small countries continued to expand. The Burma dynasty and the Qing dynasty broke out during the Qing-Myanmar War. The Qing army's four offensives failed. In 1769, Emperor Qianlong sent Fu Heng and A Gui to Myanmar, but the two sides finally ceased armistice. In 1784, the Siam but Keli dynasty sent a tributary, and in 1788, Burma also sent a tributary in response to the Siam threat. In 1789, after the unification of the Xishan Dynasty in Annan, Li Dynasty, Zheng Zhu, and Guangnan Kingdom.

The Qing army defeated the Xishan dynasty and escorted Li Di Li Zongzong to reset. On the way, it was defeated by the ambush of the Xishan army, which is known as the Qing-Vietnam War. Ruan Hui sent a confession to the Qing court, and the Qing court was named King Annan. North Korea and the Ryukyu countries have long become one of the vassal states. Only Japan, ruled by the Tokugawa Shogunate, was in a state of lock-up and had little contact with the Qing Dynasty.

Home country

Japan

After the Qing Dynasty unified Taiwan, Emperor Kangxi learned the benefits of trade with Japan from Zheng , and in 1685 he promulgated the "Zhanhai Order" to allow people to do business overseas. This policy caused the number of trips to Nagasaki to increase more than three or four times. In the same year, the Japanese government promulgated the Order of Chastity, which stipulates that the total amount of trade to Nagasaki each year: the trade volume of Chinese ships must not exceed 6,000 silver, and the number of Dutch ships must not exceed 3,000. When the total trade volume exceeds 6,000 yuan in silver, other Chinese ships entering the port in the following year are prohibited from trading and ordered to return the goods. Therefore, the late Chinese merchant ships had to sail back to China, but many Chinese ships were engaged in smuggling trade along the coast of Japan.

In the 27th year of Kangxi (1688), there were 117 ships in Japan and Tang Dynasty, and 22 ships that should return to China to engage in smuggling trade.

In the thirty-seventh year of Kangxi (1698), the Japanese government limited the number of Tang vessels to Japan to 80. Until the fifty-fourth year of Kangxi (1715), in order to prevent the outflow of copper raw materials from Japan, the shogunate announced the "New Order of Zhengde", which limits the number of Tang ships to Japan per year to 30. When this order is issued, the number of Tang ships arriving in Nagasaki will decrease .

The Japanese translated Kangxi's "Holy Edict" and called Emperor Kangxi "the saint of the kingdom." Kangxi's training and "Sixteen Articles" were published under the title of "Sheng-Yu Guangxun". Six perfunctory interpretations of Xunyu were republished after the book. This training is called "the golden word that will never be easy for all ages ", and it is also called "Xishi Renjun" to Yongzheng.

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Russia

During the Kangxi period, he organized two battles for Jaksa , expelled the invading army of Russia, and signed the " Nebuchu Treaty " with Russia. Soon after the treaty was signed, Russia proposed to the Qing government to send Chinese people to study Chinese culture. Russians mainly want to learn the classics of Lamaism, because many people in the newly expanded eastern territories of Tsarist Russia believe in Lamaism. In addition, the Russians came to China and wanted to learn Manchu characters in order to better understand China.

Regarding Russia's request, the Qing government readily agreed and placed these foreign students in the Imperial College and sent someone to teach them. Due to this short semester and lack of institutional guarantees, Russia has always wanted to send people to China to study regularly.

In the 51st year of Kangxi (1712), Emperor Kangxi sent Tullichen and others to the Russian territory to festivate the Sultan. In exchange, Peter the Great proposed to send a priest group led by monk priest Lezaiski back to Beijing.

Six years of Yongzheng (1728), China and Russia signed the Treaty of Chucktu in Chucktu, stipulating that Russia send 4 missionaries to Beijing to spread the Orthodox Church, and send 6 students to study Manchu and Chinese languages in China, every 10 Rotating once a year, Russia sends regular students to China.

Emperor Yongzheng attached great importance to these foreign students. They not only placed them in the "Russian Pavilion" in Beijing's Dongjiang Mi Xiang (later renamed Dong Jiao Min Xiang), but also set up special Manchu assistants to educate them. At that time, the Manchurian teaching assistant was Hushtuhan, and the Han teaching assistant was Chen Xianzu. The two were responsible for the teaching affairs of Russian officials and students. Not only that, the Qing government also gave Russian foreign students money, rice, and daily necessities, and even paid travel expenses when they returned home. Since then, in 150 years, Tsarist Russia has sent a total of 14 missionary missions and a total of 155 monks and veterans. Among them, in addition to clergy, there are doctors, painters, botanists, astronomers and full-time foreign students, a total of 60 Many people.

Thirty years of Qianlong (1765), the Qing Dynasty surveyed the headwaters of multiple rivers on the northeast border, inhibiting Tsarist invasion ambitions in the Heilongjiang Basin in northeast China, and suppressing Tsarist ambitions in Mongolia and northwest Xinjiang.

Because Russia harbored Chinese criminals and the Russians robbed at the border, Qianlong ordered the closure of the Chaktu market three times. The Qing imposed trade sanctions on Russia, banned the import of fur and banned the export of tea, which caused Russia to lose at least 5 million roubles.

Central Asia

Emperor Kangxi also sent spies to Mongolia, Central Asia, collected intelligence from various countries, and returned to report. The book even clearly recorded the events of the Great Northern War and Charles XII.

West

Kangxi once appointed missionary Domingo Fernández Navarrete to return to Europe to recruit talents, hoping to promote scientific, technological, and cultural exchanges between China and the West.

Retreat

Although Kangxi used to have a keen interest in learning about missionary knowledge from missionaries, Qianlong and his prince also had considerable interest in foreign scientific inventions. One after another. " But during the Kangqian period, unprecedented changes took place in the international community: in the Western world, the industrial revolution broke out, the Enlightenment prevailed, and the bourgeois revolution was surging. European powers relied on their powerful comprehensive strength to try to reshape the world according to their own will, in contrast to As a result, China's international status as a world power is declining.

The Qing government adopted a closed-door policy to minimize its contacts with the West. Kangxi once said: "There are many Tonghaikous. At this time, it will not be a problem. If thousands of years later, China will suffer." After the Qing government banned the spread of Catholicism, it also implemented a strict customs restriction policy and set its charter. It tried to limit foreign ships to Guangzhou. In 1727, it was clearly stipulated that foreign merchant ships could only go to Humen in Guangdong and Xiamen in Fujian. In 1757, the policy of formal retreat was officially implemented. Emperor Qianlong announced that Western merchant ships were allowed to moor trade at Humen, Guangdong. In 1759, Li Shiyao, governor of the two provinces of Guangdong and Guangdong, issued the "Provisions on Prevention of Foreign Invasion" to Qianlong, and established a "public" institution based on this document. A public bank is a monopoly foreign trade organization composed of officially licensed businessmen. Foreigners coming to Guangzhou to do business must go through a public bank, and their actions are also bound by the bank's merchants. Foreign businessmen are only allowed to come to Guangzhou for trade within the prescribed time, that is, from May to October each year, and they must leave when the term expires. During their stay in Guangzhou, they could only live in the “Yiguan” set up by the public bank. Foreign businessmen can only hire translators and compradors in China. They cannot hire people to deliver letters to the Mainland. The Chinese are not allowed to borrow capital from foreign investors. The regulations also require strengthening river defense and monitoring the activities of foreign ships. As a result, Sino-Western exchanges have decreased.

This move of the Qing court restricted the development of overseas trade, and also affected the further development of the export-oriented economy. It severely hindered the development of China's economy and missed the opportunity to learn advanced Western technology.

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Declassification: What kind of social situation did the Kang Dynasty in the Qing Dynasty have?

Thought clamp

Although the "Nanshan Ji" case occurred in Kangxi's later years, Kangxi treated the anti-Qing dynasty in most cases with a tolerant attitude. Many works such as Seng Hanke's Qianshan Poetry and Gu Yanwu "obstructed it. Gu Yanwu's Poetry Collection and Wang Fuzhi's "Reading and Commentary" have been published in succession. They are also famous scholars in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. Huang Zongxi, who fiercely criticized the rulers of the Qing Dynasty , also gradually called the Qing Dynasty "King Dynasty" and the rule of the Qing Dynasty as "Royal Road" in the Kangxi era. "Holy dynasty" and "national dynasty", called Emperor Kangxi as "holy emperor", called the Qing army as "king division", or even changed the use of the neutral branch of the Ming Dynasty to record visits and adopted the Qing Dynasty Zhengshuo. Some scholars have pointed out that during the Kangxi period, the attitude of most Confucians in Jiangnan gradually changed, giving up the anti-Qing struggle and acknowledging the legitimacy of Qing rule, just as Zhou Xuejun wrote in the article "Historical Changes of Jiangnan Confucian Group in Ming and Qing". Jiangnan intellectuals' analysis of the changes in Qing attitudes pointed out that after the Kangxi dynasty, "most Confucians gradually abandoned the anti-Qing struggle, and instead acknowledged the legitimacy of the rule, and the national struggle gradually returned to the social critical movement.

Ecological disaster

The error of population policy during the Kangqian period led to huge population pressure, and the contradiction between population and cultivated land became more serious. At that time, people cultivated farmland by surrounding lakes and rivers, which caused huge ecological disasters. Destroying ponds, filling trenches, intercepting rivers, occupying rivers for farming, and competing with water became national issues. This not only destroyed the already fragile water conservancy facilities, but also caused a larger ecological disaster. There is also a large-scale erosion of rivers and lakes due to the problem of planting methods, which is causing large-scale soil erosion. At that time, Wang Shiduo of the Qing Dynasty also felt the disaster caused by environmental damage. The area along the southeast coast was originally low in land and high in population. After the rapid increase in population, the contradiction between population and cultivated land became more severe, and it began to re-embark on the old road of development in the late Ming Dynasty. In the affluent areas of the Jiangnan Plain, such as the Hangjia Lake area, the ecology has also collapsed.

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During the Kangxi reign, there were nine disasters in the Yellow River in ten years. People were displaced and their wives were scattered wherever Huangshui went. At that time, Li Xuan, a champion from Xuzhou, wrote a "Sigh of a Refugee". The common people are "Selling children's babies and getting enough, what they want to eat? The most bitter thing is life and death, and death is also an instant. Shandong Liyi Township, it would be better to die than a thief. Qingqi nine-point cigarettes, suddenly turned into a ghost country!" And Officials: "Millions of money, thousands of dollars in wealth. Who is the shepherd? Possessing goods and goods!" Regarding this extremely unfair phenomenon, Li Zheng loudly asked: "Who is actually Bing Guojun? No He is the heir of the people! "

The gap between rich and poor

The prosperous times of Kang Qian were extravagant to the life of the upper class. For the people at the bottom, poverty is widespread. Chinese officials at the time were extravagant about eating, eating a few meals a day, and each meal had a lot of meat dishes.

When Maloney visited China, there were only two types of houses he saw in China. One was the house of the rich, and the other was the poor. "The places that pass by and the banks of the river are mostly soil. Cottages with grass-tops on the walls. There are also very few tall, paint-decorated houses that may be the residence of the rich. Rarely see the houses of the middle class. " Deputy Minister Magalny Stanton thought that the gap between the rich and the poor in China was the worst in the countries they had ever seen.

Mixed reputation

Maloney visited China and made a note of what he saw and heard in China. He had mixed reviews of China at the time and had a mixed reputation.

After Qianlong's visit to China during the Qianlong period, he traveled around China and recorded a lot of notes. Through these, you can see the society and people's life at that time. On the way to see Qianlong, he found that the towns along the road made him feel as if he had returned to British territory. It can be seen that the locals may not be rich, but they are not poor either. Moreover, Ma Erni is here to praise the quality of the Chinese during the Qianlong period. In Jiangnan, Ma Jiaerni also visited Yangzhou, Hangzhou, Changzhou and other cities. Makes him feel that Yangzhou's business prosperity; Hangzhou's people are affluent; and although Changzhou is not as rich as before, it is still a very small Jiangnan town

Maloney also saw that what was seen in Chinese society at the time was typical of a closed society. At the same time, Makalni also pointed out that the chaos and instability of the society at the time, such as poverty, famine, abandoned babies and civil strife, and military disasters, all caused social unrest.

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Decryption: How to evaluate the prosperous Kanggan era in the early Qing Dynasty?

The Qing dynasty reached its peak during the Kangyong and Qiang dynasties, and it was regarded as the most prosperous period. Some scholars believe that this period represented a new peak of Chinese civilization. Some scholars believe that although the population and food production in the Kanggan period showed a rapid growth trend, when compared with the European country, Britain, in the same period, there was a large gap both in terms of stock and growth rate.

Positive review

West

In the 18th century, when the missionaries who came to China presented the picture of China at that time to the Westerners, they immediately aroused the strong desire of China throughout Europe. As a result, for more than 100 years from the end of the 17th century to the end of the 18th century, a long-term "China fever" developed in Europe. During the "China fever" that lasted for more than a century, Europe was extremely sought after by China in terms of material, cultural and political systems. The enthusiasm for the Chinese style was once a general fashion in European society at that time. This fashion has penetrated all aspects of European life, such as daily necessities, home decoration, garden architecture and so on.

French missionary George Anson said in the Jesuit Global Travel Report: "China is the richest and most economically rich country in the world. The lofty emperor of China and the welfare of officials exceed all other countries in the world. A European (Just arrived in China) I will immediately lament the abundance of Chinese silk, porcelain, and household goods. These products are not more expensive than similar products available in Europe, but they are the most beautiful and most exquisitely colored in the world Product. "

Russian missionary John Bil commented in "Traveling from St. Petersburg to Asia": "In addition to the necessities to ensure adequate food and clothing, the Chinese will also have a large balance of life, especially fruits and other various items. I wo n’t go into details here. China still has a lot of gold, silver, copper, lead, and iron ore. The Chinese value silver more than Europeans, and silver is regarded as equivalent to gold. , So Kim has a good export advantage. "

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Voltaire, a famous French thinker, admired the Confucian doctrine and even changed the portrait of Jesus to the image of Confucius. He worshipped in the morning and evening and praised the Emperor Qianlong .

East Asia

In the 18th century, the envoys of the DPRK saw the prosperity of the northern market in China through Yanxing, so they launched the "Northern China" campaign after returning to North Korea. North Korean Ambassador Jin Changye once commented on the Kangxi reign: "It enjoys peace for fifty years, so it should be ridiculed!" [114] Cai Jigong argued: "Anyone enjoys the Sixth Jiping, but Qianlong is more prosperous than Kangxi. When he was in office, He is twenty-five years old and he returned to the throne in the year of his throne.

The historian of the Republic of China Xiao Yishan once commented on Kang Qiansheng in "A General History of the Qing Dynasty " and said, "In the sixty-one years of the ancestors, the culture and martial arts of the ancestors are impressive. With their spirit of learning and tirelessness , they are generous in their love of the people. Deep cultivation and easy cultivation were the foundation for the cultivation of the Qing dynasty. Although the last leaves had a slight relaxation, but after the chaos, it was necessary to rest and recuperate. This is also the way that the Lord must follow. Sejong is resolute and observant, and it is purely a politician's The style, the method is still honest, the official clarifies, the reservoir is abundant, and the sea is right. If the juvenile is overcome, it can transform a kind of positive nature for our country's politics and remove the negative thoughts of inaction for hundreds of years. Do n’t stagnate without advancing. It ’s helpless to stay awake at night. It ’s not easy to seek treatment. It ’s not easy to get the understanding of the society, so there is a legend of collapse. Gaozong Xi ’s accumulated empire, as a decoration of the Taiping, great joy , Jigu Youwen, although It is full-scale, but it is the cause of weakness. "

negative comment

The deficiency of the Kangqian period was also manifested in the low level of science and technology, the low level of productivity, the weak military strength, and the stagnation of cultural undertakings, and the political system hindered the development of economy and society. Despite mixed opinions about the prosperous times of Kang and Qian, scholars had negative opinions on the population issues at that time, the continuous rise in prices, self-defence, restrictions on the development of industry and commerce, and contempt for science and technology.

Looking at China ’s history in a longitudinal direction, the size of its prosperous period has only increased in quantity without qualitative changes. Secondly, from a horizontal perspective of the world, China ’s political system and economy during the Kang and Qian dynasties (the total economic production at that time was still higher than in the West, but Production technology is relatively backward), cultural technology has lagged behind the West. During this period, the development of the whole society was slow, but the industrial revolution broke out in Europe. The technological civilization developed leaps and bounds, and the gap between the Qing Dynasty and western capitalism grew wider.

When the West and the world changed drastically, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty arrogantly refused to open up, opposed change, satisfied the status quo, and stood still. Especially the practice of restricting industry and commerce, scorning science and technology, closing the country, strengthening centralization, and imprisoning thoughts, severely restricted society. improvement. Some scholars have pointed out that the prosperous age of Kanggan was just a prosperous age.

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Kanggan's prosperous controversy: Can Kanggan's prosperous be regarded as the last prosperous?

Zhou Siyuan, a professor at the School of Chinese Studies at Beijing Language and Culture University, disagreed that the Kangkan period was a "prosperous age" and could only be called "the rule of Kanggan." He believes that the recognition of the prosperous times in the Han and Tang Dynasties has a lot to do with its relaxed political environment and aggressive spirit. The biggest mistake made by Kang Yonggan in the three dynasties was the idea of imprisonment, and the severe and cruel idea of imprisonment represented by the character prison .

As for "The economic development of the Kangyong and Qiang periods was a kind of restorative development after the frequent wars since the end of the Ming Dynasty. It was not a revolutionary increase in productivity caused by new production methods and the use of new science and technology."

The Qing history expert Dai Yi, while affirming the term " Kang Qiang Shengshi ", also pointed out its four negative factors: closed-door locks the country, heavy agriculture and light business, imprisoned thought, and despised science, which he called "the shadow of the flourishing age". He also refuted Zhou Siyuan, stating that "there is no" new mode of production "and" new science and technology "in the entire feudal society of China for more than two thousand years, and they are all autocratic feudal systems. According to Mr. Zhou ’s reasons, There will be no 'prosperous age' in Chinese feudal society. "

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It also points out that "the prosperity of the world has shadows, and the decline of the world has hope", and does not believe that "the prosperity of the world is good and good, everything is good. This is not an objective historical fact, nor is it a dialectical method of thinking." Food production has more than doubled. At the time when agricultural technology had not improved significantly, it was a remarkable achievement.

Not only restored the level of the late Ming Dynasty, but also made great strides forward. This is the result of the efforts of farmers and the Qing government's emphasis on agriculture, rewarding reclamation, water conservancy construction, reducing taxes, promoting high-yield crops (corn, sweet potato, peanut), and encouraging and acquiescing to immigration. [138]

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Conclusion

The Qing dynasty reached its peak during the Kangyong and Qiang dynasties, and it was regarded as the most prosperous period. Some scholars believe that this period represented a new peak of Chinese civilization. Some scholars believe that although the population and food production in the Kanggan period showed a rapid growth trend, when compared with the European country, Britain, in the same period, there was a large gap both in terms of stock and growth rate.

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