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Ming history

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"History of Ming Dynasty" is the last part of the history of twenty-four. There are 332 volumes in total, including 24 volumes of the Chronicle, 75 volumes of Chronicles, 220 volumes of Biography, and 13 volumes of Tables. It is a chronology of dynasties, which records more than 200 years of history from Zhu Yuanzhang's first year of Hongwu (AD 1368) to Zhu Youjian's 17th year (AD 1644). Its volume is second only to the "History of Song" in its twenty-four history, and its compilation time, effort and diligence are more than the previous history. Although "History of Ming Dynasty" has some hidden secrets, it has been widely praised by historians of later generations. Zhao Yi said in Vol. 31 of "The History of Twenty-two Years": "The modern history is from Ouyang Gong's" Fifth Generation History "," Liao History "is brief," Song History "is prosperous," Yuan History "hastily, but" Golden History " The writing is elegant, the narrative is concise, and it is slightly impressive, but it is not as perfect as the "History of Ming Dynasty." "History of Ming Dynasty" is the longest compilation of official history books in Chinese history. It took a full sixty years from the time of the official organization of the eighteenth year of Kangxi (1679) to the preparation of the draft.

Ming history

History of the Ming Dynasty—A historical book describing the history of the Ming Dynasty in the twenty-four history

"History of Ming Dynasty": the last of the twenty-four history

"History of Ming Dynasty" is the last part of the history of twenty-four. There are 332 volumes in total, including 24 volumes of the Chronicle, 75 volumes of Chronicles, 220 volumes of Biography, and 13 volumes of Tables. It is a chronology of dynasties, which records more than 200 years of history from Zhu Yuanzhang's first year of Hongwu (AD 1368) to Zhu Youjian's 17th year (AD 1644).

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Its volume is second only to the "History of Song" in its twenty-four history, and its compilation time, effort and diligence are more than the previous history. Although "History of Ming Dynasty" has some hidden secrets, it has been widely praised by historians of later generations. Zhao Yi said in Vol. 31 of "The History of Twenty-two Years": "The modern history is from Ouyang Gong's" Fifth Generation History "," Liao History "is brief," Song History "is prosperous," Yuan History "hastily, but" Golden History " The writing is elegant, the narrative is concise, and it is slightly impressive, but it is not as perfect as the Ming History.

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Ming Shi's Creative Background: Revised by University Scholar Feng Jun during Shunzhi Years

After the Qing dynasty entered the Central Plains, the second year of Shunzhi (1645) and the April 19th (11th), Zhao Shiding of the Imperial Palace asked for the compilation of "History of the Ming" (Note: Zhao Jiding played for the compilation of the "History of the Ming", see " Qing Dynasty " The Record of Shizu , Volume 15, He Guanbiao's article "Compilation of the Shunzhi Dynasty (History of Ming Dynasty)" was first unveiled. However, there is no precise historical data to confirm when the Qing court decided to compile it.

In the official books of the Qing Dynasty , no decrees concerning the compilation of "History of the Ming Dynasty" were found. Only a few presidents, Yu Shunzhi and May Guiwei, were listed in the "Records of the Emperor of the Qing Dynasty." "History of the Ming Dynasty", and proposed a list of vice presidents and editors. This "holy deity" is probably only an oral instruction from the early dynasty. In the past, it was known that Shunzhi's "Revision of the Ming History" in May of the 2nd year, the expression was indeed inappropriate. To be precise: In the May of the 2nd year of the Shunzhi, the Qing court composed the editors of the "History of the Ming". ), Approved by the Qing court.

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Since then, Feng Shi, Li Jiantai, Fan Wencheng, Gang Lin, and Qi Chongge, university scholars, have handled the matter. In May of this year, the president nominated a vice president and a compiling officer, and set up seven officers, ten manchu characters, and thirty-six Chinese characters, which opened the prelude to the official compilation of the Ming Dynasty by the Qing Dynasty. In the four years of Emperor Kangxi (1665 AD), the Ming History Museum was reopened and it was stopped due to the compilation of the Records of the Emperor Qing Dynasty. In the eighteenth year of Emperor Kangxi (1679 AD), Xu Yuanwen began to compile the history of Ming Dynasty.

It was finalized in the four years of Qianlong (1739 AD), and was published for publication. The History of the Ming Dynasty is the longest edited history book in the history of our country. If the Ming History Museum was opened in the second year of Qing Shunzhi (1645), it would be officially presented to the emperor by the historian in the fourth year of Qianlong (1739), and it would take 94 years. It would be a full sixty years from the time of the official organization of the eighteenth year of the reign of Kangxi (1679) to the submission of the draft.


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The revision process of Ming history: which stages did the revision of Ming history fall into?

"History of Ming Dynasty" is the last part of the history of twenty-four. There are 332 volumes in total, including 24 volumes of the Chronicle, 75 volumes of Chronicles, 220 volumes of Biography, and 13 volumes of Tables. It is a chronology of dynasties, which records more than 200 years of history from Zhu Yuanzhang's first year of Hongwu (AD 1368) to Zhu Youjian's 17th year (AD 1644).

The first stage

Mainly because of political instability at the time. The official opening of Ming History began on the second day of May, the second year of the Shunzhi period of the Qing Dynasty (May 26, 1645). According to the record of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty , Feng Shi, Hong Chengchou , Li Jiantai, Fan Wencheng, Gang Lin, Qi Chongge, etc., who were officials of the Third Academy of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and President of the "History of Ming Dynasty", were invited to formally set the vice president officer to read Eleven people, including Bachelor Zhan Ba, filled the post, and selected editors, collectors, and record officials.

At this time, at the beginning of the Qing army's entry into the customs, based on the instability, it was anxious to revise the History of the Ming Dynasty. The purpose is obvious. The first was to declare the Ming Dynasty dead. At that time, the Hongguang court in Nanjing was confronting the North and South of the Qing Dynasty. The revision of "History of the Ming Dynasty" was to no longer recognize the existence of the Hongming regime in Hongguang. The second is to win over the Ming Dynasty widows by compiling "History of the Ming Dynasty", so that those Han officials of the Ming Dynasty who came to the Qing Dynasty have an emotional sustenance.

Judging from the situation at the time, the conditions for the history of the museum were not available at all. Although the Qing army invaded Nanjing on May 15 (June 8) and the court of Nanming Hongguang was destroyed, the Qing court announced on May 28 (June 21) that "Pingding Jiangnan Jieyin" was actually cleared. The army met with resolute resistance from the military and civilians in Jiangnan, especially after the Qing court announced the "shaving order", which further aroused resistance from the people in Jiangnan. Among them, the famous battle was the Jiangyin Defence Battle led by Yan Yingyuan, who had been in a solitary city for two months.

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After the fall of the Hongguang regime in Nanming, Ming Chen Huang Daozhou, Zheng Zhilong and other Feng Tang Zhu Zhujian established the Longwu regime in Fuzhou; at the same time, Zhang Guowei and Zhang Huangyan such as Feng Lu and Zhu Yihai were in Shaoxing to supervise the country; Li Zicheng and the rest of the peasant uprising army also worked with Ming Governor He Tengjun combined with the anti-Qing Dynasty. In the three years of Shunzhi (1646), Ming Chen Su Guansheng and other Feng Zhusong established the Shaowu regime in Guangzhou, and Ding Kuichu and Qu Shizhang, who also supported the king of Gui, Zhu Youlang, established the Yongli regime. In the six years of Shunzhi (1649), Zhang Xianzhong's peasant army led by Sun Kewang and Li Dingguo combined with the Yongli regime of Nanming and became one of the main forces against the Qing.

In the northern parts occupied by the Qing Army, echoing the situation of the Anti-Qing Dynasty in the South, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Gansu volunteers arose, and some generals who descended from the Qing Dynasty also raised their flags to fight against Qing. . For example, in the 9th year of Shunzhi (1652), Li Dingguo led his army to recapture the battles in Baoqing, Quanzhou, and Guilin, forcing the King of the South of Qing Dynasty to commit suicide. During the ten to eleven years of Shunzhi, Zhang Mingzhen and Zhang Huangyan, who were under the command of Minglu King, led the division into the Yangtze River and arrived in the outskirts of Nanjing. Zheng Chenggong also led the Marines to capture Zhoushan. This kind of struggle against Qing Dynasty, until the early years of the Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Yongli of Nanming was killed by Wu Sangui , Zheng Chenggong and Li Dingguo died successively. At the same time, some Chinese intellectuals eager to become government officials, such as Wei Xiangshu and Tang Bin, eagerly participated in the imperial examinations organized by the Qing court and took the lead in taking the test. Mu Manqing's precedent.

In such a fierce war and uncertain political situation, it is simply impossible to focus a lot of manpower and material resources on the history of the museum.

In the eight years of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1669), Emperor Kangxi imprisoned his obsession and began pro-government. However, there were new changes in the political situation at this time. In the twelfth year of Kangxi (1673), the " San Francisco Rebellion" was triggered by the withdrawal of Pingnan King Shang Kexi, Pingxi King Wu Sangui, and Jingnan King Geng Jingzhong, and since then, eight years of war broke out. . Until October of the 20th year of Kangxi (1681), Wu Sangui, the grandson of Wu Sangui, committed suicide. During the "San Francisco Rebellion", the Qing court concentrated on fighting the rebellion, and still had no time to take care of the compilation of the "History of the Ming Dynasty." In a piece of paper, its policy role far exceeds its role in history revision.

On the other hand, the lack of achievements in the first stage of the compilation of "History of Ming Dynasty" is due to the lack of historical data and the lack of manpower. At that time, not only did not have the strength to organize the diaries and archives of the Ming Dynasty, but there were very few contributors when soliciting books. Even the most basic historical records of the Ming Dynasty records were incomplete. The Apocalypse records are missing seven years later. Chongzheng North Korea has no actual record because of the country. All these have also limited the progress of the compilation of Ming History.

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The uniqueness of this period in Ming history: the first time became the second part

There are twenty-four volumes in this genre. As far as the number of volumes is concerned, the histories of Ming History occupies less than one-tenth of the entire book. If it is counted in words, it occupies less than one-fifth of the total. It can be seen from this that the proportion of Benji in "History of Ming Dynasty" is very small, which is a feature in the compilation of "History of Ming Dynasty". In the Chronicles of the Chronicles, the Chronicles are narrated in the form of chronicles. The History of the Ming clearly uses the Chronicles as the outline of the whole history. In a concise way, it is first listed before the book. When reading this history book, first Learned an overview of the history of the Ming Dynasty, rather than letting people know everything in detail when reading this chronicle. This should be regarded as a unique feature in the overall design of Ming History.

Another feature of the "History of Ming Dynasty" is respect for historical facts, not based on the official history of Ming Dynasty . For example, the Jianwen Emperor's year was removed after Chengzu took the throne. Its four-year record is only Yuan, Er, San, and Hongwu for 35 years, and it is appended to the Record of Ming Taizu . In "History of Ming Dynasty", there is a special volume "Gong Mindi Ji", which is very decent. Another example is the Yingzong's sacrifice of King Jingtai . The situation is similar to that of Jianwen, and it is also handled properly in Ming History. The historian Qian Daxin of the Qing Dynasty once said: "Its examples include those unprecedented in prehistoric history. For example," The Record of the Yingzong "with Jingtai seven years old, called the king of the king, and cut its temple number, at this time Shichen songwriting. This sect of Yingzong belongs to the two epochs, and King Jingji is in the middle, so it is best to consider. "(Qian Daxin:" Shi Jia Zhai Yang Xin Lu "Volume 9) Ming Hong Wuzhong Prince Wen Zhu Zhu , due to his early death Before succeeding to the throne, in the first year of Jianwen (1399), he was revered as Emperor Xiaokang and the temple was named Xingzong. After Chengzu took the throne, he abolished his Emperor Temple and renamed Prince Wenwen. Although there was an emperor's title, but it has not been changed to Yuan Dengji, so it is not included in the epoch, but entered into the biography, but it has an emperor's title, which is also historical facts, and is different from the Zhuan, after the concubine, the kings pass forward. Those who are with them are also the father of Emperor Jiajing , the king of Xingxian. Jiajing ZTE ceremony, respecting his father for the Emperor Ruizong Xing, is also the only emperor. The history of Ming Dynasty does not include Xingzong and Ruizong, which is related to the outline of Ming Dynasty's history based on the history of Ming Dynasty. Guangzong was located on the first day of August in Wanli forty-eight years (1620). He died on the first day of September of the same year. He reigned only one month before the change of the Yuan. It was decided that the first year of Taichang would be August. "Guangzong Benji" was then attached to "Shenzong Benji", without a single volume. It was only described in hundreds of words, and it is an outline work.

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Although the history of Ming Dynasty is based on the length of time, it is divided into volumes, but it is not limited to this. In the 31 years since the reign of Taizu, this empire occupies three volumes because it is the founding king. Cheng Zu reigned for twenty-two years, and this genre occupies three volumes. Although it can be said that because of his occupying the top, it is a special matter, but it has a weight. The two volumes of Yingzong can still be attributed to the year number before and after. The 22nd year of Kenzong also occupies the second volume. The 45th year of Sejong and the 48th year of Shenzong also occupy the second volume, and the 17th year of Zhuang Lie. Also accounts for two volumes. It can be seen that the history of the people is quite narrative, and it is in line with the outline of the history. On the whole, the history of Ming Dynasty is divided into emperors, and the chronicle is still a whole. Although there is little writing, it is complete and clear, and it is appropriate. A major regret in the history of Ming Dynasty is that it failed to establish the emperors of the Southern Ming Dynasty, which was determined by the political situation in the early Qing Dynasty. Officially compiling the history books of the Qing Dynasty not only made it impossible for the Emperors of the Nanming to establish the epoch, it was not even established in the biography. In the early Qing dynasty, when private history was edited, if we talked about it in vain, we would inevitably avoid the scourge of "character prison ".


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Historical evaluation of Ming history: how ancient celebrities evaluated Ming history

"History of Ming Dynasty" is the last part of the history of twenty-four. There are 332 volumes in total, including 24 volumes of the Chronicle, 75 volumes of Chronicles, 220 volumes of Biography, and 13 volumes of Tables. It is a chronology of dynasties, which records more than 200 years of history from Zhu Yuanzhang's first year of Hongwu (AD 1368) to Zhu Youjian's 17th year (AD 1644).

Zhao Yi

The modern history is beyond Ouyang Gong's "History of the Five Dynasties" ... not as perfect as "History of Ming Dynasty". -------- "Notes on the Second History"

Bai Shouyi

① "History of Ming Dynasty" is a positive history with high historical data. ② The compilation of "History of the Ming Dynasty" has been a long time, and it has the experience of compiling the previous history. It has become a better part of the twenty-four history, especially in the history of the Sui and Tang dynasties. ----------- General History of China

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Yu Qiuyu

"History of the Ming Dynasty" later became a better-written one in the entire history of the twenty-four, which is a fact that we still have to admit to this day. ----------------

"Mountain House Notes · The Back of a Dynasty"

Liu Tinghua

"History of Ming Dynasty" is rigorous, with coherent beginnings and ends, informative materials, concise writing, and few errors. It is a high-quality historical work recognized by historians since the Qing Dynasty . On the contrary, due to the pressure of Zhu Yuanzhang's political needs, the compilation of "Yuanshi" lasted 11 months and totaled 331 days, with 31 participants. The organization and leadership were urgent, rushed, and rough. The masterpiece of nearly 1.8 million words was less than one year In the time it took, there was no time to check the authenticity of historical materials and the analysis and comparison of problems. To be precise, "Historical History" was compiled by historians under political pressure. Therefore, there are many errors in Yuan Shi, and the content is repeated and contradictory everywhere. ——— “Chinese History is a Textbook for Cadres”

Meng Zhaoxin

Later generations believed that although there were still some shortcomings in the History of the Ming Dynasty, it was indeed the best one in the history of the five generations. -------- "Comments on Kangxi "


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Conclusion

"History of Ming Dynasty" is rigorous, with coherent beginnings and ends, informative materials, concise writing, and few errors. It is a high-quality historical work recognized by historians since the Qing Dynasty.

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