The Song Dynasty (960 ~ 1279) was the era of five dynasties and ten kingdoms in the history of China, and the Yuan Dynasty, divided into Northern Song and Southern Song. The Song Dynasty lasted 320 years, the Northern Song Dynasty 167 years, and the Southern Song Dynasty 153 years. There were 18 emperors. In 960, General Zhou Kuangyin, who was later in Zhou Dynasty, joined in the yellow robe and established the Song Dynasty. The period of Song Zhenzong and Song Renzong entered the heyday. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, the centralization of power was strengthened, and the problem of secession of Fanzhen was solved. The change of Jingkang in 1127 killed the Northern Song Dynasty. Song Gaozong Zhao Gou moved south to establish the Southern Song Dynasty. In the later period, the Anti-Mongolian War continued for years. By 1276, the Yuan Dynasty army occupied Lin'an. In 1279, the 8-year-old little emperor Zhao Xie was killed by Minister Lu Xiufu carrying the sea. After the battle of Yashanhai, the Song Dynasty was completely destroyed. The demise of the Song Dynasty is "there is no China after the Yashan", but the national integration and commodity economy developed unprecedentedly during the two Song dynasties, frequent foreign exchanges, and rapid development of culture and art are the golden period in Chinese history. The death of the two Song Dynasties was caused by Song Huizong and Song Du and Li emperors favoring the traitors. Huizong favored the six thieves, while Du and Li clan favored Jia Yidao.
Song Taizu Zhao Kuangyue (March 21, 927-November 14, 976), the founder of the Chinese Great Song Dynasty, Han, was born in Jiamaying, Luoyang, and was born in Yinzhou, Hebei. Born in a military family, Zhao Hongyin's second son. In 948, after the vote, the Confucian ambassador made Guo Wei under the curtain and repeatedly made great achievements. In 951, Guo Wei became the emperor. After the founding of the week, Zhao Kuangyin served as an officer in the army. In 960, under the name of "seding the two states," he lied to report that Qidan and the Northern Han Dynasty invaded the south, led the army, launched the Chen Qiao mutiny , added yellow robes, became emperor on behalf of the Zhou, established the Song Dynasty , and established Kaifeng. 16 years in office. During his reign, he strengthened centralization, promoted politicians' politics, and created a century of cultural prosperity in China. He was a wise and benevolent emperor and an outstanding figure in promoting historical development.
Zhao Kuangyin, Luoyang, Henan. Born into a military family, the founding emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty and a military strategist. Gao Zu Zhao Yan, grandfather Zhao Jing. His father Zhao Hongyin moved to Luoyang when he was born in Luoyang Campa Camp. A native of Luzhou, Hebei, his father was an officer of the late Tang, late Jin, and late Han dynasties. After Zhao Kuangyin first fled, Han General Guo Wei was appreciated by Guo Wei because he loved martial arts. Later, he participated in supporting Guo Wei as Emperor of the Later Zhou Dynasty, and was re-used as a banned army. When Zhou Shizong Chai Rong, he was promoted to the front of the hall for inspection (the highest general of the front division), mastered the military power of the following week, and also served as the German envoy of Songzhou (now Shangqiu County, Henan Province). Responsible for defending Jingjing. After the death of Zhou Shizong, his son Chai Zongxun succeeded to the throne when he was only 7 years old. Zhao Kuangyin and his brother Zhao Kuangyi and aide Zhao Pu plot to usurp the throne.
In the first month of 960 AD, some people from Zhenzhou (present-day Zhengding County, Hebei Province) and Dingzhou (present-day Dingzhou City, Hebei Province) came to Jingjing to report that the troops of the North Han and Liao countries joined the south to attack the week after. The Queen Mother Fu Zhou and the Prime Minister Fan Zhi, Wang Ji, etc. do not distinguish between true and false. Hurry to send Zhao Kuangyin to lead the army north to defend the enemy. On Chenchen Day, I went to Chen Qiaoyi (now 40 kilometers northeast of Kaifeng City, Henan Province) to stay; the next day at dawn, Chen Qiaoyi suddenly heard loud voices. Zhao Kuangyin woke up drunk, walked out of the bedroom, and saw the crowd holding weapons one by one, standing in line in front of the court, and speaking in unison, headed by Zhao Kuangyi and Zhao Pu: "The generals have no master, and would like to ask for inspection to be the emperor." He didn't wait for Zhao Kuangyin to answer, put the prepared yellow robe on him, and then worshiped together and shouted "Long live". This incident is historically called "Chen Qiao Mutiny."
Then, Zhao Kuangyin led the army back to Jingjing. After hearing the change, Minister Zhou Hantong rushed home from the inner court, preparing to organize a military confrontation. Halfway through, Zhao Kuangyin killed him. Prime Minister Fan Zhi, Wang Yi surrendered under threat. On the afternoon of the fifth day of the first month, Zhao Kuangyin abolished Chai Zongxun and was named emperor. The founding name was Song, the capital was Jingjing, the history was called the Northern Song Dynasty, and the year was named "Jianlong".
After Zhao Kuangyin established the Northern Song Dynasty, seeing the power of separatist forces in the world, he said to Zhao Pu: "I can't sleep because the bed is all other people's place." On the side, do you allow others to sleep! ”) With the help of Zhao Pu, Zhao Kuangyin first defeated the resistance of the remaining forces Li Zhou and Li Chongjin in the next week, and then adopted the strategy of“ unifying the south and then the north ”to unify China and attack successively. It destroyed the separatist regimes such as Nanping, Hunan, Houshu, Nanhan, and Nantang, and at the same time strengthened its defense against the northern Khitan.
Song Taizong Zhao Guangyi (939-997), the second emperor of the Song Dynasty . His real name was Zhao Kuangyi, and his name was changed to Zhao Guangyi to avoid his brother Taizu's taboo. After the ancestor died, Zhao Guangyi, 38, became emperor. After the throne, he used political pressure to force King Wang Yue of Wuyue and Chen Hongjin, who separated from Zhangzhang and Quanzhou, to submit to the land for three years (978). The following year he procured Taiyuan and destroyed the Northern Han Dynasty, ending the separatist situation of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms . Two attacks on Liaoning and attempts to regain the sixteen states of Yanyun were unsuccessful. Since then, they have defended Liaoning. And further strengthened the centralization of power, during the reign, since the late Tang Dynasty, the emphasis on martial arts light essay. He reigned for a total of 21 years. To three years of Taoism, 59-year-old Song Taizong died, the temple name Taizong, and the nickname Zhiren Yingdao.
Zhao Guangyi (AD 939-997): Song Taizong Zhao Ji [jiǒng], whose real name is Zhao Kuangyin, was changed to Zhao Guangyi in the first year of Jianlong, and was the second emperor of the Song Dynasty.
He is the third son of Song Xuanzu Zhao Hongyin and Queen Mother Du, and Song Taizu's younger brother, Zhao Kuangyin . Jin Tianfu was born on the 7th day of the 7th year of the Jin Dynasty. He was born on October 7, 1949 (November 20, 939) in the official building of Husheng Camp, Chongdefang, Junyi County, Kaifeng Prefecture. In the ninth year of Kaibao (976), Taizong designated this day as "Qianming Festival"; in the first year of Chunhua (990), it was changed to "Shouning Festival". Is a pig. At first, the mother of Emperor Taizong, Queen Mother Du, dreamed that the god was holding the sun to grant her, and she became pregnant. Until the night of Taizong's birth, the red light rose and the streets were full of strange fragrance.
Song Taizong was clever and uncluttered when he was young, and he played with other children, and he was afraid of him. At the age of 22, Taizong participated in the Chen Qiao mutiny and embraced his brother Zhao Kuangyin as emperor and Jin king. He had participated in the great cause of Taizu's unification of the Quartet. Taizong has good governance and is not good at martial arts.
After the reign of Taizong, he continued to unify the cause, encourage the reclamation, develop agricultural production, expand the scale of imperial examinations , compile large-scale books, set up examination colleges and courts, strengthen the inspection and selection of officials, and further restrict the use of power. Strive to change the situation of military people in power and establish civilian politics. These measures followed the trend of history and made important contributions to the stability of the Song Dynasty. However, due to eager success, several northern expeditions and attacks on Liao were frustrated. In the four years of Taiping Xingguo (979), Song Taizong and Zhao Guangyi moved to Youzhou in an attempt to regain the ten states of Yanyun in one fell swoop. Song Jun was defeated, and Song Taizong was shot and injured by Yelu Xiu, and fled in a donkey cart. He failed twice in Liaoning, leading to a peasant uprising in Sichuan by Wang Xiaobo and Li Shun. So Taizong turned to the policy of keeping inside and outside. In his later years, his political plan followed the rules of the Song Dynasty, which gradually formed a "poor and weak" situation, which also adversely affected the development of the Song Dynasty society. Governing measures have to start with his succession. According to the feudal dynasty's eldest son inheritance system, Zhao Guangyi had no connection with the Song Dynasty, but in the end he inherited his brother's legacy. This special inheritance result had a very important influence on the politics of the Great Song Dynasty, and this was even reflected in Taizong's personal character and life.
Taizong reigned on October 21, 2009 (November 15, 976) to March 29, Dao three years (May 8, 997), and reigned for 22 years.
On March 29th of the third year of Guidao (May 8, 997), Taizong died in the Longevity Hall, and walked on the west stage of the hall. The temple number was Taizong. He died on October 18 and was buried in Yongxi Mausoleum (now northeast of Xun Village, Xi Village, Gongyi, Henan).
Song Zhenzong Zhao Heng (968-1022), the third emperor of the Song Dynasty , the third son of Song Taizong , succeeded in 997, died in 1022, died at the age of 55, and reigned for 25 years. In the first year of Jingde (1004), the Liao Kingdom built by the Khitans invaded, and the prime minister, Kou Zhunli, disagreed with the public and persuaded the emperor to recruit. Due to Shinjo's fear of Liao's momentum, and regardless of Kou Zhun's opposition, he settled in Yuyuan with a large amount of gold and silver tribute to Liao every year. Historically known as the Alliance of Yuanyuan . Since then, the Northern Song Dynasty has entered a period of economic prosperity. In the later period of the True Sect, Wang Qinruo and Ding Wei were used as the phase. The two often used the scriptures of Fu Rui to confuse the court and the emperor, and the emperor was seduced by the feudal meditation. As a result, the politics of the state were kept up and social conflicts continued to intensify. serious.
Zhao Heng (968 AD-1022 AD), the third-generation emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty, was called Song Zhenzong in the history, and the third son of Zhao Guangyi in the Song Dynasty. Before he came to power, he was named Han King, Xiang King, and Shou King. In 997, he became the throne. Originally not the heir to the throne. Song Taizong initially set up his eldest son, Zhao Yuanzuo, as the prince, but was later abolished because Zhao Yuanzuo later suffered from mental illness, wounded and arson in the palace. Taizong then established Zhao Yuanzhang as second prince, but Zhao Yuanzhang died early. After the death of Zhao Yuanzhang, Taizong only established the third son Zhao Dechang as the prince. In three years (997), Song Taizong collapsed due to the recurrence of the previous sword injury. Zhao Dechang succeeded as emperor and changed his name to Zhao Heng. Shinshu. The clan's genealogy name is Zhao Dechang, and Taizong renamed Zhao Yuanxiu and Zhao Yuankan after he succeeded.
Before his succession, he was named King of Han, King of Xiang and King of Shou, and once served as Yin of Kaifeng. He used the years of Xianping, Jingde, Dazhongxiangfu, Tianxi and Qianxing. During the Xianping years, there was good governance, increasingly strong governance, increasingly perfect state management, and social and economic prosperity. The Northern Song Dynasty was relatively strong.
In the first year of Jingde (1004), the Liao Kingdom established by the Khitans invaded, and the prime minister, Kou Zhunli, expelled the public to persuade the emperor to conquer the emperor. Yuan (now west of Puyang County, Henan), Song Sheng, Zhen Zong decided to stop there, regardless of Kou Zhun's objection, and paid 300,000 pieces of silver and 200,000 pieces of silk to Liao each year in exchange for "Liao" The peace between them, Yu Xuanyuan settled the alliance and reconciled, and the history is called "Yuan [chán] Yuan alliance". Since then, Song and Liao all have been restoring people's livelihood for a long time, and the Northern Song Dynasty has gradually entered the period of economic prosperity. In the later period, Wang Qinruo and Ding Wei were used as the phase. They often used the scriptures of the book Fu Rui to confuse the court, and the emperor was also seduced by Feng Chan. In 1021, Song Zhenzong was sick. On the Wuwu Day, he ordered his prince Zhao Xun to take over the throne. On the 20th of the first year of Ganxing (1022), he died in the Yanqing Hall in the Jingjing Palace. He was 55 years old and reigned for 25 years. He was buried in the Yongding Mausoleum (now Henan). Caijiazhuang, Southeast of Gongyi City, Hunan Province). After the death of Zhao Heng, the Emperor Xiaoyuan was the emperor, and the temple was a true sect.
Song Zhenzong is the author of the famous proverb "Golden house in the book, Yanruyu in the book".
Song Renzong Zhao Yan (1010-1063), the fourth emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty (reigned 1023-1063). Benefiting from his first name, Song Zhenzong 's sixth son was born in Dazhong Xiangfu for three years (1010), and became crown prince in 1018. He was named Zhao Yan, and became emperor in 1023 when he was 13 years old. In 1063, he collapsed at the Palace of Heavenly Liang, at the age of 53. Forty-one years in office. During the reign of the Song Dynasty, the bureaucracy was inflated, and there were many officials and soldiers. However, the external war was repeatedly defeated. Although Xixia had already claimed the title of Song, the frontier crisis remained unabated. Later, although the "Qingli New Deal" was promoted for a time, it failed to achieve its full success. Its tomb is Yongzhao Mausoleum. The sacred body of heaven, the Tao, the Tao, the most merit, the Holy Spirit, Wu Ruizhe, the Ming Xiao emperor.
Song Renzong (1010—1063), that is, Zhao Kun, Zhenzongzi. In the eighth year of Dazhong Xiangfu (1015), he was named King of Shouchun County, and in the second year of Tianxi (1018), he was named King of Princes. Qianxing first year (1022) ascended the throne.
For more than 10 years of Heavenly Saint and Ming Dao, the Empress Dowager Zhang Xian drew the curtain. During his reign, there was a certain development in the science and culture of the Song Dynasty, but various social contradictions also became more acute, and land mergers became more and more serious. In the first year of Huang You (1049), the total number of national troops increased to 1.4 million, reaching the peak of raising soldiers in the Northern Song Dynasty. Military expenditure accounts for 78% of fiscal revenue. The number of officials also doubled compared to that of Shinshu. During the Kangding and Qingli years, Xixia invaded several times, and Song Jun was defeated. Later, he entered into a peace agreement with Xixia and gave Xixia a large amount of silver, silk, and tea each year. Liao also humiliated and summed up, adding new currency. The peasant uprising, mutiny, and ethnic minority resistance struggle for more than a year. In order to resolve the crisis of rule, Ren Zong used Fan Zhongyan , Han Qi, Fu Li and others to take charge in the Qingli years, and tried to rectify the administration of officials. The history called the Qingli New Deal, but it was soon cancelled. Ren Zong was weak and incompetent. Although he was in power for 42 years, he did nothing.
However, during the reign of Song Renzong, the country was stable and peaceful, the economy was prosperous, and science and technology and culture were greatly developed. During the reign of Emperor Renzong, the government formally issued the world's earliest paper currency, "Government Officials."
Emperor Renzong was generous, luxurious and able to restrain himself, so he was praised by historians and politicians of all ages. On one occasion, officials presented clams in early autumn. Renzong asked where he got it from, and his subordinates replied that it was transported from afar. Asked how much money, and answered a total of 28 pieces, each piece of money. Ren Zong said: "I often warn you to save, and now it costs 28,000 yuan to eat a few clams, and I can't eat it!" He also did not eat.
Song Yingzong Zhao Shu (1032-1067), the fifth emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty, reigned from 1063 to 1067, formerly known as Zongshi, later renamed Zhao Shu, great-grandson of Taizong, son of Wang Yunrang . Renzong had no sons. Yingzong was brought up in the palace to raise him as a child. In 1050, he served as an envoy for the Yuezhou regiment and later as a defense envoy for Qinzhou. Established in 1055. During Yingzong's reign, he used former minister Han Qi and others, and did not want to reform, but there was no war with Liao and Xixia. In 1067, he died at Funing Hall in the palace. He was buried in Yonghouling for four years and was accompanied by Gao Hou, Di Qing and Yang Yanzhao .
Ying Zong Zhao Shu is the grandson of Shang King Zhao Yuanfen, the younger brother of Zhenzong, and the son of Zhao Yunrang, King of An An. Jiayou seven years (1062) was established as the crown prince, Fengluo County. Jiayou was emperor for eight years.
Song Yingzong Zhao Shu (formerly known as Zhao Zongshi), the fifth emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty, the thirteenth son of Zhao Yunrang, the tenth emperor (the first year of Ming Dao), was born on the third day of the first month of the reign of the Emperor Shen (February 15, 1032) In Xuanpingfang Mansion [Jiayou eight years (1063), Yingzong set this day as "Shousheng Festival"], which is a monkey. At the earliest, the two kings of the king Wang Meng fell with the sun, and they were covered with clothes. When Yingzong was born, the room was full of red light, and Huanglong was walking in the light. Yingzong reigned on April 1st, Jiayou Renshen (May 2, 1063)-the eighth year of the fourth year of Zhiping Ding Yu (January 25, 1067), and he was in power for 4 years. Year number Zhiping: The first year of the first month of the first year of Zhiping (January 21, 1064)-the eighth year of the fourth year of Zhiping Ding Yu (January 25, 1067), the year number is used for 4 years. In the three years of Zhiping (1066), on November 25th, the sacred body should be emperor Wenwu Shengxiao. On the 8th day of the fourth year of Zhiping, Ding Ling (January 25, 1067) Yingzong collapsed at Funing Hall, aged 36, died at the west stage of the hall, Temple No. Yingzong, the prerogatives of the ministers, Su Wuxuan Xiao Emperor, August On the 27th, he died at the Tomb of Yonghou (now Gongyi Xiaoyi Fort, Henan). In November of the 6th year of Yuanfeng (1083), the Emperor Jiadi's body responded to the Emperor's prosperous virtues, the Constitution, and the Wu Ruisheng Emperor Xuanxiao.
Yingzong was not the natural son of Renzong, and Ben had no chance with the throne. As the first emperor in Northern Song Dynasty to inherit the unification of Datong, it should be said that he was lucky. But unfortunately, he was frail and ill. He had a serious illness at the beginning of his throne, but had to be closed by the Empress Dowager Cao. Although he was pro-government, he died shortly after his reign, only 5 years in office. Yingzong, like his nominal father Renzong, was also an emperor who wanted to make a difference, but his obedience to filial piety was almost paranoid, which made him conflict with Empress Cao at the beginning of his throne. Soon after the pro-government, there was a farce that shocked Asano to reclaim the status of a biological father. When this controversy subsided, his life came to an end, so the great cause of reform to rejuvenate the country had to be left to his son Song Shenzong to complete.
Affection between father and son: Wrestling around controversy
Yingzong's pro-government was only half a month, and Prime Minister Han Qi and others proposed to Yingzong and asked relevant departments to discuss the issue of Yingzong's biological father. At that time, Renzong had died for 14 months. Yingzong gave instructions and waited for Rezong to discuss again. That is to say after 24 months, this is obviously a gesture made by Yingzong in order to reduce the resistance of the seal. On April 9th of the year of Zhiping, Han Qi and others raised this issue again, so Yingzong sent the bill to Taichangliyuan for discussion by officials of two or more systems. This led to a controversy that lasted 18 months, and this was the famous "controversy" in the history of the Northern Song Dynasty.
Emperor Shenzong of Song Dynasty , the eldest son of Yingzong, the eunuch body element revealed the Dafa of the ancient constitution, the emperor and the king, the English emperor Wu Qinren, the filial piety emperor , the eldest son of Yingzong Zhao Shu. In the eighth year of Jiayou (1063), he was enshrined by the Emperor Guangguang; later, he added the official chapter of the same book to the king of Huaiyang County; in the first year of Zhiping (1064), he entered the emperor. Zhiping was crown prince for three years, and he was the emperor the following year. Reigned from 1067 to 1085. After the throne, he was deeply dissatisfied with the weak politics and he always admired Wang Anshi 's talents. Therefore, he succeeded Wang Anshi to carry out reforms with a view to revitalizing the Northern Song Dynasty. Historically known as Wang Anshi's reform, also known as Xining reform. Due to the urgency of the reform, the law failed, and it ended in failure, but Shenzong still maintained the new law for nearly two decades.
Emperor Shenzong of the Song dynasty revealed the Dafa, the ancient constitutional emperor, the king, the English emperor Wu Qinren, the filial piety emperor, taboo Zhao, formerly known as Zhong Needle, the sixth emperor of the Song Dynasty , Yingzong and Xuanren Shenglie Gao. On the 10th day of the eighth year of the Qing calendar, on April 10th, May Yin (May 25, 1048) was born at the Mu's family house in the palace of the King of Lu'an. On the day of Shenzong's birth, a group of rats vomited five colors of air into a cloud in the Xiangguang room. Shenzong reigned from the eighth year of the first month of Zhiping (January 25, 1067) to March 5th of Yuanfeng year (April 1, 1085), and he has been in power for 18 years. The first day of the first month (February 6, 1068) to December 6, Xining Decade (December 23, 1077), Yuanfeng: December 6, Xining Decade (December 23, 1077) Until March 5, Yuanfeng eight years (April 1, 1085), the year number was used for 17 years. On the 5th of the 8th year of the Yuanfeng Emperor's Rebellion (April 1, 1085), the Divine Sect collapsed at Funing Hall at the age of 37. He died at the west step of the hall, the Temple Noble Sect, and the princes were listed on the English Emperor Wu, a filial piety emperor. On the 14th, he died and was buried in Yongyu Mausoleum. In September of the 2nd year of Shao Sheng (1095), Jiao Shao was able to perform ancient meritorious deeds in Shao Tianfa in English. Emperor Wu Qinren was the filial piety of the emperor, and in three years (1104) of Chongning, he changed his body to heaven. Emperor Lie Qin Ren Sheng Xiao Xiao Emperor, Zhenghe three years (1113) In November, he added the body to reveal the Dafa Constitutional Emperor and King Gong in English Lie Wu Qin Ren Sheng Xiao Emperor.
At the time Xia Huizong was reigning, the mother party Liang's dictatorship, the state of Xixia, Japan and Africa, Song Shenzong ordered the army to defeat Xixia, and plans to wipe out Xixia in one fell swoop. In Qingzhou (now Qingyang, Gansu), the Song Army broke the Xia Army and occupied 2,000 miles of land in Xixia. However, it was defeated in the battle of Yongle City later, and the annihilation of the summer was not realized. Afterwards, Song Shenzong cried in public in the midst of the dynasty. He had ambitions, worked hard, and wanted to destroy Xixia, but he was unrequited. He died of hatred in Yuanfeng's eight years, and he was 38 years old. After his son Song Zhezong took power, he did his best to complete his father's will.
According to the "Song History", Zhao Xi was "a good learner to ask, until the day of Yan Yan forget to eat".
When he was a prince, he read "Han Feizi" and was very interested in the technique of "rich country and strong soldiers". He also read Wang Anshi's "Book of Emperor Shangrenzong Emperor", and he highly appreciated Wang Anshi's thoughts on managing money and managing the country.
Song Zhezong Zhao Zhe (January 4, 1076-February 23, 1100), the seventh emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty (reigned from 1085 to 1100), was the sixth son of the former emperor Song Shenzong , formerly known as a servant, and was once named King of Yan'an County. When Emperor Shenzong became ill, he became the prince. In the eight years of Yuanfeng's death, Emperor Shenzong died. Zhao Xun ascended to the throne as Emperor Song Zongzong and changed the Yuan to Yuanyou. Reigned 15 years, at the age of 24. Emperor Xianyuan succeeded Emperor Dao Xiande, Dinggong, Qin Wenrui, Wuqi, and Emperor Zhaoxiao, who was buried in Yongtai Mausoleum in Gong County, Henan Province today.
Born in the 9th year of Xining (AD 1076) on the seventh day of the lunar calendar (January 4th, 1077), Zhezong Song was born at the age of 9 and was ruled by the Queen Mother . After the queen mother came to power, Ma Guang, a stubborn lawsuit, was appointed as prime minister. As soon as Sima Guang came to power, he completely abolished the " Wang Anshi Reform" (Xining Reform) at the time of Shenzong. Song Zhezong was dissatisfied with the governing and repression of Sima Guang and the Empress Dowager. In the eighth year of Yuanyou (1093 AD), the Empress Dowager died, and Zhezong became the governor. After Zhezong pro-government, he stated that he pursued and devalued Sima Guang, and deprecated old parties such as Su Shi and Su Zhe in Lingnan (now Guangxi and Guangdong), and then reused reformists such as Zhang Ye and Zeng Bu to restore Wang Anshi ’s reform The Baojia Law, the Immunization Law, and the Young Seedling Law alleviate the burden on farmers and improve the country's national strength. The following year changed the "Shao Sheng" and stopped negotiating with Xixia. He repeatedly sent troops to fight against Xixia, forcing Xixia to beg peace with the Song Dynasty . Three years of Yuan Fu (1100 AD) died on January 12th of the lunar calendar (January 23, 1100 on the Gregorian calendar) and died in Yanliang (now Kaifeng, Henan).
Zhezong was the more effective emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty.
However, because the party dispute between the new party and the old party was not resolved, it intensified during the period of Song Zhezong's administration, planting the long-term cause of the demise of the Northern Song Dynasty. The tragedy of Song Zhezong is that his ideal is too far away from his actual ability. He is more like a character on paper. He has many ideas in theory, but lacks the ability to adapt and control in practice. It is difficult to handle. All kinds of complex contradictions and relationships.
The Empress Dowager Xuan Ren Gao was very devoted to Song Zongzong from the beginning of his policy to the end of his life. He worked hard to love and educate the little emperor. However, Zhezong felt suffocated and restrained by this excessively thoughtful care. Therefore, as soon as the Queen Mother died, Song Zhezong could not wait to change course and implement his revered father emperor Song Shenzong's policy. Although Song Zhezong admired his father's courage, he was worse than his father's experience and quality, and the results were quick and counterproductive. His professionalism and achievements, his ideals and realistic abilities, are really too different, and they fall into tragedy and cannot extricate themselves.
Zhao Hui of the Song Huizong (November 2, 1082 to June 4, 1135), was the eighth emperor of the Song Dynasty , 11 sons of Emperor Shenzong and brother of Zhezong. Zhao Yan was named King Suining and Duan Wang successively. Zhezong had no children when he died of illness in the first month of 1100 AD, and made the emperor to the queen in the same month. In the second year, the name was changed to "Building the Yasukuni". Song Huizong reigned for 25 years (February 23, 1100-January 18, 1126). He was captured and tortured and died at the age of 54. He was buried at Yongyou Mausoleum (now 35 kilometers southeast of Shaoxing County, Zhejiang Province). . He created a calligraphy typeface called "Skin Gold Book" by future generations. In addition, his flower painting on calligraphy and painting is similar to an elongated "Tian" word, which is said to symbolize "the man in the world".
Song Huizong (1082 ~ 1135) Zhao Yan, Emperor of Northern Song Dynasty, painter, calligrapher. Eleven sons of Song Shenzong and brother of Zhezong. Zhezong died of illness, the Empress Dowager made him emperor, the eighth emperor of the Song Dynasty (reigned from 1100 to 1125), 25 years of reign, captured and tortured and died at the age of 54. He was buried at Yongyou Mausoleum (now Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province) 35 miles southeast of the county).
During his reign, he used Cai Jing , Tong Guan, Gao Yi, and other traitors to preside over the administration of the state, and ransacked the people's wealth. He was extravagant and extravagant. Establish a crafting bureau dedicated to the royal family. They also searched for strange flowers and stones and transported them to Kaifeng by ship, called the "Flower Stone Gang" to create Yanfu Palace and Gen Yue. He believes in Taoism, calling himself "the prince of Taoism and emperor", he built a palace view, and set up a twenty-sixth level Taoist official, and issued it to Taoist Taolu. During his reign, there were outbreaks of civil disturbances led by Fang La and Song Jiang . In the second year of Xuanhe (1120), the envoys entered into a covenant with the Jin Dynasty and attacked the Liao country. Xuanhe seven years, Jin Jun went south to attack Song. He passed on Zhao Wei (Qin Zong), claiming to be the Emperor. In the second year of Jingkang (1127), he was captured by Jinbing with Qin Zong. Later he was detained to the north and imprisoned and died in the Five Kingdoms City (now Yilan, Heilongjiang). Twenty-six years in office. He is incapable of governing the country, but his artistic ability is quite high. Calligraphy is called "thin golden body", and the hand-painted paintings include "Front Carnation", "Pond Late Autumn", etc., and can poetry.
Song Huizong's nickname is the emperor who combined the body and spirit, the martial arts, the benevolent emperor, the filial piety of the emperor, and I really don't know how such a lot of praiseful words came out of the Southern Song ceremonies. At first glance, those people who do n’t know history may be excellent emperors, but although he has not achieved much in his role as emperor, he has left precious wealth for future generations in art.
Song Huizong also respected Taoism, built a palace view, claimed to be the leader of the Taoist emperor, and often invited Taoists to look at fortune tellers. His birthday was May 5th, and the Taoist priests considered it unlucky, so he changed his name to October 10th; his zodiac sign was a dog, and he ordered a ban on dog slaughtering in Beijing.
In October 1125, when the Jin Army invaded south, the Donglu Army under the command of Zong Wang, the commander of the Jin Army , led to the Jing Dynasty in the Northern Song Dynasty. When Song Huizong received the report, he quickly ordered the cancellation of Hua Shigang and issued "Sin and Healed," confessing some of his faults, and wanted to use this to restore the hearts of the people. Jin Bing drove straight in, approaching Jingjing. Huizong was afraid and anxious, holding a minister's hand and saying, "I didn't expect the Jin people to treat me like this." After finishing the words, he blocked his throat and collapsed in front of the bed. After being awakened, he reached out for paper and pen and wrote the words "in the crown prince". In December, he announced his abdication, claiming to be "the Supreme Emperor", giving way to his son Zhao Yi (Qin Zong), and taking Cai Jing, Tong Guan and other thieves, and fled to Mengcheng, Luzhou, Anhui (now Mengcheng, Anhui Province) under the pretext of burning Xiangcang Huang. In April of the following year, Jin Bing besieged Lei Jing was repelled by Li Gang and returned to the north, and Song Huizong returned to Lei Jing.
Song Qinzong Zhao Yi ( 1100-1156 AD), formerly known as Zhao Yi, also known as Zhao Yi. He was the eldest son of Emperor Zhao Hui of Song Huizong in the late Northern Song Dynasty. Born in the third year of Yuan Fu (1100 AD) on April 13th, and in the Xuanhe Seven Years (1125 AD) when the Jin people invaded southward, Hui Zongchan was in him, reigning for 1 year and 2 months. Indecisive, capricious and lacks judgment on political issues. When Jingkang changed, he was captured by the Jin people and went north. Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1156 AD) died of illness in Yanjing at the age of 57. He was buried in Yongxian Tomb (located in Baoshan, Southeast Shaoxing, Zhejiang today).
Song Qinzong and Zhao Ji (formerly known as 亶, 煊), the ninth emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty, the eldest son of Huizong and Empress of the Northern Song Dynasty, the elder brother of Zhao Gou of the Southern Song Dynasty , the nephew of the Northern Song Zhezong , the grandson of the Northern Song Zongzong , three years of Yuanfu On the 3rd, Jiyi (May 23, 1100) was born in Kunning Hall [the first year of Jingkang (1126), which was designated as the "Dragon Festival" by Qin Zong], which belongs to the dragon. Zhenghe was married in June in six years (1124), and the crown prince was Zhu Xi. Xuanhe December 24th (January 19, 1126) —Jingkang February 6th (March 20, 1127) reigned in March, a total of one year in March, Jingkang: Xuankang And December 29th (January 24th, 1126) —Jingkang February 6th (March 20th, 1127). The year number is March 1st. Shaoxing, June 10, 26, Gengchen (June 29, 1156) Khinjong collapsed in the Five Kingdoms City at the age of 57. The temple name is Qin Zong, the knight is Gongwen Shunde Emperor Renxiao, and Qin Zong Yu Yongxian is buried. Mausoleum (now Baoshan, Southeast Shaoxing, Zhejiang). resume
In the seven years of Xuanhe (1125), Jin Bing was enthroned by his father Huizong as he went south. The following year, he was forced to use the main battle faction Li Gang to fight against gold, and killed and killed Cai Jing 's party. But still agreed to beg for compensation, cut off Taiyuan and other three towns.
In the first year of Jingkang (1126), the Jin people returned. In November, the Jin soldiers besieged Kaifeng Kaifeng, personally went to Jinying to discuss and were detained.
In the second year of Jingkang (1127), in February, the capital city of Beijing was destroyed, the Northern Song Dynasty was destroyed, and Huizong was dismissed by Jin as a tartar. In April, the clan such as Huizong and some of the ministers of the Northern Song Dynasty were captured by the soldiers of the North, and first placed in Yanjing. In September, he migrated to the more distant Shangjing Huining Mansion (now Acheng in Heilongjiang).
In August of the following year, in the next six years (1128), the Fang arrived in Beijing, Jin Taizong was named Huizong, and Qin Zong was a clan. In October, the Emperor Hui and the Emperor Qin were dispatched to Hanzhou (now North of Changtu, Liaoning, and Jilin Pear Tree). In July of the eighth year of the Tianhui (1130), the second emperor moved to the Five Kingdoms Town (now Yilan County, Heilongjiang), a small town on the border of the North Country, where he "watched the sky from a well." In April of the thirteenth year of the Tianhui (1135), his father Huizong Zhao Zhe died in the Five Kingdoms City.
In the first year of the emperor's reign (1141), Jin Xizong changed his name to Tianshui County Duke, Hui Degong (Hui Zong, deceased) was King of Tianshui County, and seaside king Yelu Yanxi (Liao Dynasty emperor) was King Yu.
The founding emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty , Zhao Gou (1107-1187), the word Deji. The ninth son of Song Huizong , brother of Song Qinzong , was once named "King of Kings." In 1127 (second year of Jingkang ), Jin Bing's captive emblem and Qin Erzong went north, and he was ascended to the throne at Yingtianfu, rebuilding Yuan. Rejected the main faction's anti-gold claim and moved south to Shaoxing and Lin'an to establish the Southern Song Dynasty. During the reign, although the situation was forced to fight against gold with generals such as Yue Fei , the surrender Qin Hui was reused. Later, with the humiliating conditions such as cutting the land, nagong, and courtiers, he summoned the Jin people and killed Yue Fei. In 1162 AD (thirty-two years of Shaoxing) Zen was located in Song Xiaozong , claiming to be the emperor. He is good at calligraphy, good faith, deeds, cursive writing, freehand brushwork, natural and fluent, and is quite charming. He is the author of "Han Mo Zhi", and handed down inks such as "The Cursive Luo Luo Fu".
Song Gouzong Zhao Gou (June 12, 1107 ~ November 9, 1187), the word Deji, the first emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty. Reigned from June 12, 1127 to July 20, 1162. The year names are Jianyan and Shaoxing. The ninth son of Zhao Huizong of Zhao Huizong, the grandson of Songzong of Song Dynasty , the nephew of Song Zhezong , and the brother of Zhao Qin of Song Qinzong.
In the first month of 1126 AD (the first year of Jingkang), Jin Bing encircled Beijing and invited Prince Zaichen to discuss the peace. Qin Zong ordered him to envoy, and Zhao Gou succeeded in envoying, and did not humiliate his mission. Later was Marshal of Hebei Bingma, with ten thousand soldiers. The following year, the capital city of Fengjing was destroyed, the two emperors Huiqin were captured, the royal men, women, and children were taken away, and the Northern Song Dynasty was perished. The organization of Qin Wang Bingma outside the organization, in Nanjing (now Shangqiu, Henan) is the emperor, is Gaozong. Changed Yuan to build Yan, historically known as the Southern Song Dynasty.
In 1127 (the first year of Jianyan), Yangzhou fled to the south, and the Jin people pointed at Yangzhou the following year. In the past three years, from Yangzhou to Zhenjiang, and then to Hangzhou, and to the north, Jiankang Mansion (now Nanjing) has written to the scholars and expressed his willingness to cut off the title of Song Dynasty . The Jin Ren refused Gaozong's surrender and moved south again, "searching the mountains and inspecting the sea to catch Zhao Gou." Gaozong built Kangkang in Zhenjiang, Hangzhou, Yuezhou, Mingzhou and Dinghai until he fled into the sea by boat. The Jin people also pursued the sea. Because of the heavy rain and the Jin army was not good at water battles, they had to give up.
In 1129 AD (three years of Jianyan), in December of the old calendar, the Jin people violated the state, soothed Li Ye to surrender, and the defender Tang Qi sleeved stones attacked Jin Jiang Paweig and was killed. In 1129, Song Gaozong once visited Jinling and changed the Jiangning Mansion to "Jiankang Mansion", indicating that he would lead the resistance against the gold here and restore the rivers and mountains of the Northern Song Dynasty. In April of the following year, Jin Wushu led his army to march north to Hangzhou, and Gaozong returned to Yuezhou from Wenzhou. In June, the servants, Taiwanese princes, and generals will discuss the matters of staying in the dynasty. In 1130 (four years after the establishment of Yan), the "Shaoxing first year" (1131) was changed. In October of that year, the state of Shaoxing was promoted to Shaoxing, and Shaoxing was established. . During the period of Vietnam, he successively exempted Hutian rice from three counties in Shaoxing Prefecture, reduced taxes in Zhejiang and Xiaxia, and purchased fine silk and silk cotton, reduced one-third of the silver supply in the middle and upper reaches of Fujian, and released prisoners below the ranks. . It was scheduled to be in Lin'an in 1138 AD.
In 1187 (14th year of Chunxi), the old calendar died in Deshoudian in October, and in March 1189 (16th year of Chunxi), he was buried in Yongsi Mausoleum of Song Liuling (now Baoxing, a suburb of Shaoxing) in Huiji, and the Holy Spirit Wenxian Emperor Xiao, Temple No. Gaozong. In 1192 AD (the second year of Shaoxi), Zeng Huan was ordered to Zong Quangong to Emperor Wuwen Zhaoren Xian, a filial piety emperor. Author of "Han Mo Zhi". The "History of Song" has "The Original".
Song Xiaozong Zhao Yan (November 27, 1127, October 22nd of the first year of Jianyan-June 28, 1194, June 9th of Shaoxi Year), the second emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty (1163--1189) Position), the seventh generation grandson of Song Taizu, the first name was Bo Xi, later changed his name to Xi, named Wei, Zi Yuan Yong, Shao Tong Tong Tong Dezhao Gongzhe literary god Wuming Shengcheng filial piety emperor. He is the adopted son of Emperor Gao Zong of Song Dynasty , who was the sixth son of Zhao Defang, the second son of Tai Kuang Zhao Kuangyin . His father was Zhao Ziyu, the king of Xiu'an Temple. Since Gaozong's only son, Prince Yuanzhang, died and did not have a sister-in-law, he had to choose a successor from other clans.
In the thirty-second year of Shaoxing (1162), Gaozong gave way to Zhao Xun for Song Xiaozong, and the throne of the Song Dynasty returned to Song Taizu's long house again. Song Xiaozong reigned for 27 years and Chunxi sixteen years (1189) abdicated, giving way to his son Song Guangzong Zhao Yan. Shaoxi died of illness in five years (1194) and was 68 years old. No. Shao Tong Tong Tong Dezhao Gongzhe literary deity Wuming Sheng Chengxiao emperor, temple name Xiaozong. Burial in Yongfu Mausoleum.
After the Emperor Xiaozong ascended the throne, he decided to revive the Central Plains and regain the Central Plains, regain the rivers and mountains, and then restore the famous Yue Feiyu Wumu, captivating Yue Fei as the emperor of the E Kingdom, depriving Qin Hui of his official ranks, and ordering veteran Zhang Jun to expedite Central Plains. However, in Fu Li, he was defeated by the Jin Army. Then Jin Jun chased while winning, the South Song Army suffered heavy losses. Song Xiaozong was forced to sign the "Longxing Peace Treaty" with Jin Guo in the second year of Longxing (1164). In the following year, the "main road" was changed, and Wang Huai was used for financial management. During the years of the main road, because there was no interference from the war, Song Xiaozong was dedicated to political administration, the people were affluent, the grain was abundant, and he was too peaceful, and he changed the corruption and corruption in the Gojong Dynasty. Because Song Xiaozong ruled the state party, a well-off situation of "Government of Ganchun" (dry: trunk road, Chun: Chunxi) appeared in the Southern Song Dynasty. In October of the fourteenth year of Chunxi (1187), Gaozong died of illness. In order to serve the mourner, Xiaozong invited Prince Zhao Yi to participate in pre-administrative affairs. In February of the sixteenth year of Chunxi (1189), Zen was located in Prince Edward. After his reign, the Prince was Song Guangzong. Xiaozong professed to be the emperor, and lived in the Zhonghua Temple, and continued to mourn for Gaozong. Guangzong was not in harmony with Xiaozong, and he did not visit Xiaozong for a long time. For this reason, Xiaozong became unhappy and became sick. Eventually in June of the five years of Song Guangzong and Shaoxi (1194), Xiaozong died in Lin'an Zhonghua Temple.
Jian Yan was born in October of the first year of the first year of Jianyan. The sixth ancestor is Qin Wang Defang, the fourth son of the great ancestor Zhao Kuangyin. His father was Zhao Ziyu, the king of Xiu'an Temple. Since Gaozong's only son, Prince Yuanzhang, died without a sister-in-law, he had to choose an heir from the royal family. According to the Record of A Different Circumstance, Song Gaozong was dreamed by Song Taizu, saying that "Ruzu self-conspired, according to me for a long time, as the world is sparse, it should be returned to me." Therefore, Song Gaozong succeeded Taizu VIII grandson as adoptive son, and established as Prince Edward; there are similar records in the Song history, but it was entrusted to the dream of Empress Meng.
Shaoxing three years (1133) in February for Hezhou defense envoy, named Zhao Yan, changed Guizhou defense envoy. In the twelve years (1142), he was named King of Pu'an County on the first month. Thirty years (1160), in February became the prince, renamed Zhao Wei, into the feudal king. In thirty-two years (1162), he became the Crown Prince in May and was renamed Zhao Shen. In June, the Emperor Gaozong reigned, the Emperor Xiaozong ascended the throne, and the age was Longxing, determined to restore the Central Plains and regain the mountains and mountains, and then restored the famous Yue Feiyu Wumu, pursued Yue Fei as the E-Government, cleared the remaining Qin Dynasty party, and ordered the veteran Zhang Jun to expedite the Central Plains. But in Fu Li, he suffered a sudden defeat of the Jin Army. Then Jin Jun chased while winning, the South Song Army suffered heavy losses, and then both sides won and lost, but Jin could not cross the Yangtze River and Song failed to cross the Yellow River.
Song Xiaozong was forced to sign the "Longxing Peace Treaty" with Jin Guojin Sejong in the second year of Longxing (1164), and the following year changed to the "main road."
During the years of the main road, because there was no interference from war, coupled with Gaozong's less political administration, Xiaozong's dictatorship, wealthy people, rich grain, and peace, he changed the situation of corruption and corruption during the Gaozong dynasty. Since Song Xiaozong ruled the state party, a well-off situation of the rule of Ganchun (dry: main road, Chun: Chunxi) appeared in the Southern Song Dynasty. During Song Xiaozong's time, a group of favored officials, such as Zeng Zheng, Long Dayuan, Zhang said, and eunuchs Liang Ke and other "conjunctions and entanglements", "the shameless scholars affiliated with them", were included in the "Fortunate Scholarship".
In October of the fourteenth year of Chunxi (1187), Gaozong died in Deshou Palace. After hearing about it, Xiaozong wept and cried. He could not eat for two days, and said he would be mourned for three years. In order to mourn, Xiaozong invited Prince Zhao Yi to participate in the pre-administrative affairs. On the second day of February 16th of Chunxi (February 18, 1189), he gave way to the prince, and after the reign of the prince, it was Song Guangzong. Xiaozong claimed to be the emperor, and lived in the Cifu Palace. He later changed his name to Chonghua Palace and continued to mourn for Song Gaozong. Guangzong was not in harmony with Xiaozong, and he did not visit Xiaozong for a long time. For this reason, Xiaozong became unhappy and became sick. Eventually, on the 9th day of June in the 5th year of Song Guangzong and Shaoxi (June 28, 1194), Xiaozong died in Lin'an Zhonghua Temple.
After the Emperor Xiaozong ascended the throne, he decided to revive the Central Plains and regain the Central Plains, regain the rivers and mountains, and then restore the famous Yue Feiyu Wumu, captivating Yue Fei as the emperor of the E Kingdom, depriving Qin Hui of his official ranks, and ordering veteran Zhang Jun to expedite Central Plains. However, in Fu Li, he was defeated by the Jin Army. Then Jin Jun chased while winning, the South Song Army suffered heavy losses. Song Xiaozong was forced to sign the "Longxing Peace Treaty" with Jin Guo in the second year of Longxing (1164). In the following year, the "main road" was changed, and Wang Huai was used for financial management. During the years of the main road, because there was no interference from the war, Song Xiaozong was dedicated to political administration, the people were affluent, the grain was abundant, and he was too peaceful, and he changed the corruption and corruption in the Gojong Dynasty. Because Song Xiaozong ruled the state party, a well-off situation of "Government of Ganchun" (dry: trunk road, Chun: Chunxi) appeared in the Southern Song Dynasty.
Song Guangzong Zhao Zheng (1147-1200), the twelfth emperor of the Song Dynasty, the third emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty (1190-1194), temple No. Guangzong, reigned for 5 years, died at the age of 54, after death Emperor No. Xun Xian Xian Ming Ming Gong Mao De Wen Wen Shun Wu Shengzhe Cixiao emperor.
Song Zongzong, Zhao Zong, the third son of Emperor Xiaozong and Empress Guo, was born in the palace of the palace on September 4th, Shaoxing in the 17th year of Ding Yue (September 30, 1147) [Guangzong designated this day as the Chung Ming Festival], Chinese New Year Rabbit. Emperor Guangzong reigned on February 2, 16th (February 18, 1189)-July 5, 5th (July 24, 1194), and was in power for 6 years. The first day of the first month of the first year of the Xi (February 7, 1190)-July 5 of the Five Years of Shaoxi (July 24, 1194), the year number was used for 5 years. On October 3, the second year of Qingyuan, the emperor Sheng Anshouren emperor. Xin Zong (September 17, 1200) Guangzong collapsed in Shoukang Palace at the age of 54 on August 8th, Qingyuan, and was buried in Yongzong Mausoleum. On November 14th, Bing Yin, Emperor Guangzong, Emperor Xianren Sage and Emperor Cixiao, Jiatai Three Years (1203) Renshen, Jiaxun Emperor Methodist Emperor Mingming Gongmao Wenwen Shunwu Sage Philanthropy emperor.
Emperor Song Guangzong and Zhao Zheng were the third son of Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty . Guo's famous name is the sixth generation grandson of Emperor Guo of Song Zhenzong . Guo died of illness before Song Xiaozong's throne, and was later pursued as a queen. The four sons of Guo's symbiosis: the eldest son Zhao Yan, Feng Deng; the second son Zhao Kai, Feng Qing Wang; the third son, Zhao Yan, began to be named King Gong, later Song Guangzong; Song Xiaozong first established his eldest son Zhao Yi as the prince, but soon died. In order, the prince's turn should be the second son Zhao Kai. However, Song Xiaozong prefers the third son Zhao Xun, who thinks that Zhao Xun is "heroic and martial", and the second son Zhao Kai is too generous and kind, in fact, he feels that Zhao Kaiwo is weak. Zhao Xun was fortunately established as a prince in this background. .
After becoming a prince, Zhao Xun respected Song Xiaozong from the beginning, but he did not sincerely respect his father Huang, but was forced to write a superficial article in order to keep Chu. This superficial article has been done for a long time, and it will inevitably be annoying. After 40 years of age, Zhao Yan has been the prince for more than ten years, and began to implicitly or unintentionally imply that Song Xiaozong passed the throne early. One day, Zhao Yan deliberately said to Song Xiaozong, "My beard has begun to be white. Someone specially sent me a beard dye, but I have no use." The voice outside the string is that your son has a white beard. It should be an addiction to being an emperor. Song Xiaozong naturally understood his son's intentions, but pretended not to understand it, and replied solemnly: "What's wrong with white beards? I can just show your maturity to the world."
After Zhao Nai touched the nail, he did not dare to openly test it again. Instead, he pleased Empress Dowager Wu (Queen Song Gaozong ) and wanted the Empress Dowager to gain the throne. The Empress Dowager Wu also understood Zhao Xun's intentions and hinted to Song Xiaozong, but Song Xiaozong said that the prince still needed training. This series of incidents left a heavy shadow in Zhao Yi's heart, which directly led him to start doubting his biological father.
Song Ningzong and Zhao Zhan (November 18, 1168-September 18, 1224) were the thirteenth emperor of the Chinese Song Dynasty and the fourth emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty (July 24, 1194-September 18, 1224) . Song Xiaozong was named King of King and King of Pingyang. After Song Guangzong ascended the throne, Zhao Zhan was made Prince. In the five years of Shaoxi (1194), Song Guangzong was forced to abdicate, and Zhao expanded to the throne, and the year was changed to Qingyuan. Song Ningzong reigned for 30 years at the age of 55. During the reign of the Song Dynasty, the Song Dynasty was relatively stable, the people were relatively prosperous, and it also restored its Confucian status. After his death, the nickname was Fa Tianbei Daochun Demaogongren Wenzhe Wu Shengrui respected the emperor.
Song Ningzong Zhao Zhao, the thirteenth emperor of the Song Dynasty, the second son of Emperor Guangzong and Empress Li, was born on the 19th of October, the 19th year of the Five Years of the Rebellion (November 18th), and was born in the palace of King Gong. [Ning Zong designated this day as the "Tianyou Festival" and later changed it to "Suiqing Festival"], which is a Chinese rat. Originally, Queen Li dreamed that a big sun had fallen into the courtyard and carried it with her hands, thereby becoming pregnant and pregnant; until the night of Ning Zong's birth, Xiangguang walked around the room. Ning Zong reigned on July 5, Shaoxi (July 24, 1194)-Jiading 17th and August 3rd (September 17, 1224). He was in power for 31 years, and his year is Qingyuan: The first day of the first year of the Qing Dynasty (February 12, 1195)-the first day of the first year of Jiatai (February 5, 1201), the first day of the first year of Jiatai (February 5, 1201) —The first day of the first year of Kaixi (January 22, 1205), the first day of the first year of Kaixi (January 22, 1205) —The first day of the first year of Jiading (January 19, 1208) Jiading: The first day of the first month of the first year of Jiading (January 19, 1208)-August 17th of Jiading (September 17, 1224), the year number is used for 30 years. Jiading 17th year, August 3rd, Ding Hui (September 17, 1224) Ning Zong collapsed in Funing Hall, aged 57 years. He was ugly on the 28th day of the first year of Baoqing (1225). Zong, Emperor Ren Wenzhe, Wu Gong Xiaoxiao Emperor; On March 13th, Gui Ning was buried in Yongmao Mausoleum (now Baoshan, Shaoxing, Zhejiang). In September of the three years of Baoqing (1228), Jia Di Fa Tian Dao Chun Demao Gongren Wenzhe Wu Shengrui respected the emperor.
Song Ningzong was born in the four years (1168) of the main road in October Bingwu, and in five years (1169) he was named Zhao Zhan. In the five years of Chunxi (1178), he was named the British Prince in October; in twelve years (1185) he was named King of Pingyang County; in sixteen years (1189) he was named King of Jia. Shao Xi was the prince for five years (1194) and soon succeeded. When Song Ningzong succeeded to his throne, his father Song Guangzong was still alive and changed to the emperor. In the name of Song Guangzong, he was given to Song Ningzong. Actually it was Zhao Ruyu, Zhao Yandu, Ye Shi, Xu Yi and other courtiers. Han Qi, a foreign relative, contacted him to obtain a court coup caused by the support of Emperor Gaozong Wu, forcing Song Guangzong to give way.
After Song Ningzong succeeded, the prince's prime minister Zhao Ruyu and foreign relative Han Xun were at odds with each other. In the end, Han Xun used the ancestral family law of "the imperial clan should not be the rule", so Song Ningzong fired Zhao Ruyu, and called the Confucianism he advocated as pseudo-science, which caused a blow to the Confucianists and banned the party in Qingyuan. This policy was maintained until 1202, when Han Zheng regretted and Ye Shijian said that the embargo was lifted. Han has since become a pivotal figure in the Southern Song Dynasty. His status and power are much higher than the average prime minister.
Lizong Song Zhaozong , Song Lizong is the fourteenth emperor of the Song Dynasty (September 17, 1224-November 16, 1264), reigned for 40 years, at the age of 60. Zhao Yan, a native of Shaoxing, the royal family of the Song Dynasty, the son of Zhao Kuangyin , the ninth-generation grandson of Zhao Dezhao. Formerly known as Zhao Yuzhen, in 1222, he was named the Ningzong's younger brother Yizhangzi, and was named Chengcheng. In 1224, he was named Ningzong's prince, named Mingxu. After Song Ningzong's collapse, Zhao Yan was embraced as emperor by the power minister Shi Miyuan, known as "Song Lizong" in history.
Song Lizong (born in 1205, died in Lin'an in 1264), formerly known as Zhao Yuxun, was established in 1222 as the Ningzong younger brother Yizhangzi, and was honoured with sincerity. In 1224, he was established as Ningzong prince, named Mingxu, the fifth in the Southern Song Dynasty . Emperor, he reigned from 1224 to 1264.
In the early days of Song Lizong, he rarely paid attention to political affairs. After he ascended to the throne, he handed over all national affairs to Shi Miyuan. He did not ask questions about government affairs until after the death of history in 1233, Lizong began pro-government. In 1234, the Southern Song Dynasty united Mongolia to destroy gold. Li Zong worshipped Confucianism , and was not interested in politics, and handed over state affairs to his prime minister, including Wu Qian, Ding Daquan, and Jia Sidao.
In 1259, Mongolia attacked Ezhou, and the right-hand minister Jia Sidao became a monarch to Mongolia in the name of Song Lizong, and completely ceded the land north of the Yangtze River to Mongolia. He died in Lin'an in 1264.
Song Lizong was not a prince, but a relative of the Song Dynasty royal family. He was the ninth grandson of Zhao Dezhao, the son of Zhao Kuangyin. After the death of his predecessor Song Ningzong, Prime Minister Shi Miyuan distorted his prince Zhao Hong and Li Guicheng, who was Song Lizong.
The first ten years of Song Lizong's succession were under the control of the history of power ministers. He did not ask questions about government affairs until the death of history in 1233. Song Lizong started pro-government at the beginning of the pro-government. Reform measures such as Taiwan ’s prosecution, clarification of government administration, and rectification of finances have historically been described as “more peaceful.” In the late period of his administration, the North Korean government fell into the hands of traitors such as Ding Daquan and Jia Sidao, and the country's power declined rapidly. In 1234, the Southern Song Dynasty united Mongolia to destroy gold. In 1259, Mongolia attacked Ezhou, and Prime Minister Jia Sidao became a monarch to Mongolia in the name of Song Lizong and completely ceded the land north of the Yangtze River to Mongolia.
The posthumous title of Li Zong was the construction of Taoism and the restoration of Lie Wenrenwu Shengming An's filial piety. The temple name is set to Lizong, because of his esteem for Cheng Zhu's Confucianism. He is the most important monarch in the process of officialization of Confucianism.
When Lizong was seriously ill, he had sacrifice himself and asked famous doctors from all over the country to treat himself, but no one applied. Li Zong died and was buried at Yongmu Mausoleum near Hueiji after his death. Only fifteen years after his death, his tomb, including the tombs of several other emperors and concubines of the Southern Song Dynasty, was stolen by a monk named Yang Zhizhenjia. Li Zong's body was not rotted because he was soaked with mercury when he entered the tomb. He took his body out of the mausoleum and hung it upside down in the woods before the mausoleum to drain mercury. Li Zong's head was then cut off and sent to the ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in Beijing, whose trunk was burned. Song Lizong never expected it before his death. Li Zong's skull was not found in Yuan Dadu's palace until Zhu Yuanzhang captured the capital. Zhu Yuanzhang ordered people to rebury Li Zong's skull at the site of the Song Mausoleum and repair the destroyed tomb.
Song Lizong had no children, and set up his nephew, Zhao Xi, as the prince and Song Duzong .
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Song Duzong Zhao Yan (May 2, 1240-August 12, 1274) Rong Wang Zhao and Bingzi, first named Meng Qi , also known as Zi, Changyuan. Song Lizong had no son and was adopted as an adopted son. He was named King Jian'an, King Yongjia and King Zhong. In 1260, he was made Prince. Li Zong died of illness in October of the five years of Jingding (1264). He succeeded to the throne on the same day, and was renamed "Xianchun" the following year. Song Duzong reigned for 10 years, at the age of 35, and was buried in Yong Shao Ling after his death.
Zhao Yan is the son of Song Yuzong's brother, Zhao Yurui. Brother Li Zong was the only one who grew up, but Zhao Yi was born with stunted growth. Zhao Xi's mother was a young grandma in Wangfu. Because of her low birth, she was always bullied by the wife of the main house. She found that she was forced to take the fetal medicine by her wife immediately after she was pregnant. Because he was the only boy of the emperor's close relatives, he was protected by all the people in the government. He had no choice but to be poisoned by Chinese medicine. He was born weak and had weak hands and feet. He would walk very late. He was equipped with a mentor, and taught carefully, still unable to enlighten him, often fainting the emperor. Left Prime Minister Wu Qian did not agree to let this mentally handicapped child be the heir of the Great Song Dynasty, and asked for another son of the clan, but Li Zong was elected by the people from the people. Jia Sidao took the opportunity to make a fool of his words and devalue Wu Qian to the outside world. Others were afraid to say more.
After Du Zong was enthroned, he was weak and incompetent. His absurdity was better than that of Li Zong. He banqueted in the harem all day and drank with the concubines. . It is recorded in the "Continued Zizhi Tongjian · Song Ji 180": "The emperor himself is a prince, with a good inside smell; standing, lingering in wine. Story, 嫔 妾 进 御, morning 诣 合 门 谢恩, Lord The book is written on the date of the emperor. At the beginning of the emperor, there were more than thirty gratitudes a day. "The general meaning of this passage is that Zhao Ye became famous as a crown prince. This is still the case after becoming emperor. According to the old example in the palace, if the princess was called to accompany the emperor to sleep at night, the next morning, he would go to Hemen to thank the emperor for his grace, and the eunuch in charge would record the date of the luck in detail. When Zhao Yonggang became emperor, one day there were more than 30 court princesses who thanked him in front of Hemen. After the throne, the four most favored women were also in charge of even the official documents, known as the four ladies of spring, summer, autumn and winter. Feng Jia seems to be a teacher, and he doubled his trust and entrusted him with all the politics of the DPRK. Jia Sidao saw that Du Zong was even more mediocre than Li Zong, and he was even more arrogant and arrogant. He had no emperor and was indifferent. He resigned with resignation. Du Zong was afraid that he would not leave and always bowed in humiliation, retaining him with tears . Special awards Jia Sidao Pingzhang for military affairs, he promised three days. Later, he relaxed until the tenth day, and every time he retreated, Du Zong always had to leave his seat to see him out of the hall before dare to sit down. He also built an exquisite home in West Lake Geling. Jia Sidao was so promiscuous that he darkened the government.
Kublai Khan won the Mongolian Khan position, and after stabilizing the interior, he sent troops to invade the Sichuan area of the Song Dynasty and went south along the Han River. Yu Duzong Xianchun surrounded Xiangyang in four years (1268), and in 1269 he besieged Fan City. Jia Sidao kept secret and did not send reinforcements. Even after Xiangfan was besieged for three years, the situation was very critical. Later, Du Zong knew and asked Jia Sidao. Jia Sidao still concealed the truth and said, "The Mongolian soldiers have retreated. Who created this rumor?" Du Zong replied that a maid told him that Jia Sidao killed the maid. Such a decadent rule put the Song Dynasty on the eve of demise.
In the first month of the ninth year of Xianchun (1273), Fan Cheng was attacked by the Yuan Army. In February of the same year, Xiangyang Shouxian Lu Wenhuan surrendered to the city under the condition of running out of food. The news came that Jia Sidao pretended to lead the army, and the timid and incompetent Du Zong just dragged Jia Sidao and did not let him go.
In the tenth year of Xianchun (1274), Du Zong died in the Funing Hall in Lin'an Palace because of excessive drinking, and his widow was succeeded by Prince Zhao Xian.
One day, a sacrifice ceremony was about to be held. Suddenly it was pouring rain. The official in charge of the emperor's carriage was Hu Xianzu's father, Hu Guizhen's beloved by Du Zong. Hu Xian Zu suggested to go back to the palace by car. Ask Prime Minister Jia! ”Anxious to return to the palace, Hu Xianzu coaxed the emperor and said,“ The prime minister has agreed. ”The emperor hurriedly returned to the palace. After a while, the rain was sunny, Jia Sidao thought that the emperor would come back to preside over the ceremony, only to realize that the emperor had returned to the palace, and suddenly became furious: "I am a great ambassador, even my Majesty's actions are unpredictable, quit!" Out of the capital. The emperor begged for a few days, but Jia Xiang still ignored him. He had to dismiss Hu Xianzu, tearfully, and sent Hu Guiyu to the temple to punish him as a nun. Jia Sidao then returned home with satisfaction.
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Emperor Song Gong Zhao Yi (1271-1323) was the seventh emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty (reigned from 1274 to 1276) and the second son of Song Duzong. He was born to the whole queen , the younger brother of Song Duanzong and Zhao Ye , the brother of Emperor Zhao Zong of the late Song Dynasty, who was previously named Jia Guogong and General Zuo Wei. .
In 1274, Song Duzong died due to excessive alcoholism. Four-year-old Zhao Kun ascended to the throne as imperial emperor with the support of his traitor Jia Sidao. He was named Emperor Song Gong, Deyou. Her grandmother, Queen Mother Xie, and her mother, All Queen Mother, were in court. But the power of the militarism is still in the hands of Jia Sidao.
At that time, the Yuan Dynasty army in Mongolia had gained the northern half of China. After gaining control of Xiangfan City, the most important route southward, it crossed the Yangtze River and marched toward Linan (now Hangzhou), the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty. Queen Mother Xie ordered "King of Kings" across the country and begged for peace with the Yuan Army. The mighty Yuan army broke through the defense lines in various places and successively surrendered to the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. In 1275, the 30,000 army led by Jia Sidao defeated the Yuan Army in Wuhu. Soon, Queen Mother Xie and Emperor Song Gong had to kill Jia Sidao under the oppression of the people of the country. To death, the situation of extinction is inevitable. In the middle of the same year, the Yuan Army occupied most of Jiangdong's territory (now Jiangsu Province). On January 18, 1276, the Yuan soldiers led by Boyan Linlin. The court of the Southern Song Dynasty failed to make peace and had to surrender to the Yuan Army. In the same year, Empress Dowager Xie, holding the five-year-old Emperor Song Gong Emperor Zhao Gong, surrendered to the Yuan Army. Later, the remaining forces of the Southern Song Dynasty were in Fujian and Guangdong against the Yuan. Finally, in 1279, the eight-year-old little emperor Zhao Kun was forced by the Yuan army to die, and he had to jump to the sea to die. The Southern Song Dynasty was finally perished.
After Emperor Song Gong was captured, he was named the Emperor Guo by the Yuan Dynasty. From the Yuan Dynasty ancestor Kublai Khan to the 26th year of Yuan Dynasty (1289), Yuan Shizu Kublai Khan suddenly rewarded 19-year-old Zhao Kun with a lot of money and told him to go to Tibet as a monk. So the young emperor Song Gong Emperor became a monk and made many contributions to the Buddhist world, translating many Buddhist scriptures.
Later, in the third year of Yuan Yingzong's reign (1323), Zhao Yan knew his former identity and wrote:
: Message Lin Hejing, how many times have plum blossoms opened?
: Golden platform off passengers, should not return.
This poem fully expressed his feelings for the Southern Song Dynasty, and expressed Zhao's condemnation of the Yuan Dynasty government's unreasonable attack on the Southern Song Dynasty, thus breaking the prison of writing . Later, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty found out that he was furious and ordered him to die. He died at the age of 53.
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Song Duanzong Zhao Shi (1269-1278 AD), the eighth emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty , the temple number Duanzong, the nickname Yuwen Zhaowu, the filial piety emperor, and the emperor Song is also known in history.
Song Duanzong Zhao is (July 10, 1269-May 8, 1278, is: the same name as the ancient name of "Xia"), the seventeenth emperor of the Song Dynasty (June 14, 1276-May 8, 1278 Reigned), reigned for 2 years, at the age of 11 years, the temple number is Duanzong, the nickname Yuwen Zhaowu, the emperor filial piety filial piety emperor or filial piety, emperor filial piety, emperor filial piety and emperor, and Emperor Song is also known as the Emperor Song. He is the eldest son of Song Duzong and the eldest brother of Emperor Song Gong . He was once named Jianguo Gong, Ji Wang, Yi Wang, etc.
Emperor Song Gong Deyou On the 18th day of the 2nd year (February 4, 1276) When the Yuan Army conquered Lin'an, 5-year-old Emperor Song Gong and Empress Xie were captured. Zhao Shi and her mother Yang Shufei and her brother Zhao Yan were escorted by the state council Yang Liangjie and fled to Fujian. They settled in Fuzhou, Xupu, Pingshan, and renamed Jing Yan. The palace was Pingshan Pavilion. At this time, once the warehouse was opened to help the people, the local people were very grateful. When the Yuan army occupied Fuzhou, the local people renamed the Pingshan Pavilion to Taishan Palace, in honor of Gaozong Zhao of the Southern Song Dynasty and the two kings Yi and Guang who entered Fujian. General Wenchen: Wen Tianxiang , Lu Xiufu, Chen Yizhong, Zhang Shijie. These local idols are shaped by the Taishan Palace, which actually evades the censorship of the Yuan Dynasty and uses the Taishan Palace as a cover. The Taishan Palace is intact).
Before he was crowned, Zhao was named "Marshal of the World". Ascended the throne on June 14, 1276, and changed to Yuan Jingyan when he was only 7 years old. Although courtier Lu Xiufu and others insisted on resisting the Yuan and tried to restore the Song Dynasty, under the close pursuit of the Yuan Army, Duan Zong could only be escorted into the sea by General Zhang Shijie, escaping from the east to the west, and was exhausted. He fled to Nan'ao Island, and the Song Well dug on the beaches of the island still survives. He later fled to the Kowloon City area of Hong Kong. The existing Song Wangtai and Hou Wang Temple were built in memory of Song Duanzong.
In March of three years (1278) of Jing Yan, in order to avoid Yuan chasing Liu Shen, he boarded the ship and entered the sea off Guangzhou. The "dragon boat" capsized, and he was rescued by drowning when he was drowned.因元军追兵逼近，又不得不浮海逃往碙洲（今香港大屿山）。不到10岁的小皇帝屡受颠簸，又惊病交加，於几个月後（1278年5月8日）在碙洲去世，葬於永福陵（今香港大屿山）。
宋卫王赵昺 (bǐng)（1272年——1279年），汉族， 南宋亦是宋朝最后一位皇帝 （第九位，1278年——1279年在位），在位2年，享年8岁。 Zhao Xun was the youngest son of Duzong of the Song Dynasty, and he was once named as a knight of the state, the king of Guang, and the king of Wei. 1276年2月，元军攻占宋都临安（今浙江杭州），俘获5岁的宋恭帝及其母全太后 （恭帝祖母谢太皇太后因身体不适，暂居临安）。他与其兄赵昰在文天祥 、陆秀夫、张世杰、陈宜中及其母杨太妃等南宋遗臣的拥护下南逃，蒙古军队统帅伯颜一心想把南宋皇室斩草除根，便遣张弘范、李恒等人追击。当时他被拜为天下兵马副元帅官职，判泉州。 1276年夏，赵昰即位称帝，是为宋端宗 ，继续和赵昺南逃，在元军的不断追击下，1278年，端宗因落水而染疾去世，赵昺登基做了皇帝，改元祥兴。他在位时，以厓山（今广东新会崖门）为据点，拜张世杰、陆秀夫为左右宰相，并起用张世杰抗元，陆秀夫整顿内政。但是因为种种原因，南宋最终还是于1279年3月在崖山海战中被元军大败，全军覆灭，陆秀夫遂背时年8岁的赵昺跳海而死，张世杰、杨太妃等人也相继投水殉国。 The last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty died, and the Song Dynasty ended.