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The Reform Movement of 1898

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The Reform Movement of 1898 was not only a political change, but also a movement of ideological emancipation and bourgeois culture. During the Reform Movement, the Reformers focused on spreading Western bourgeois socio-political doctrine and knowledge of natural sciences, propagating natural human rights, freedom and equality concepts, and criticizing feudal monarchy, which severely impacted the old and rotten wine culture. The controversy between Kang Youwei , Liang Qichao , Yanfu, and Tan Yitong has attracted a large number of intellectuals. The evolutionary thoughts conveyed in The Evolution of Heaven have played a deafening role in the academic world. The reform movement, while opposing old learning, advocating new learning, criticizing middle school, and advocating western learning, new thought content and new situation styles have created new situations in many ideological and cultural fields. "Poetry Revolution", "Stylistic Revolution", "Fiction Revolution", "Drama Improvement" and other cameras came into being, forming a wide range of literary and artistic innovation movements. The Reform Movement of 1898 had the important significance of the bourgeois enlightenment. Starting from the beginning, the bourgeois culture broke the situation of feudal culture monopolizing the cultural front and gradually developed into the cultural mainstream.

The Reform Movement of 1898

The Reform Movement of the Bourgeois Nature in the Late Qing Dynasty

Related people

Emperor Guangxu - Cixi - Kang Youwei - Liang Qichao

Why the Emperor Wu Reformed Cixi broke with Guangxu: The Emperor could not be allowed to seize military power

Why did the Emperor Wu reform Cixi break with Guangxu ? What Cixi couldn't tolerate most was that Guangxu summoned the new army commander Yuan Shikai in an attempt to seize military power. And Cixi was not idle. On June 15th, that is, the Reform Movement of Wuxi entered the fifth day, Cixi asked Guangxu to make three successive orders: First, he was ordered to exempt Emperor Weng Tonghe's co-hosted university scholar and military minister from the ranks. Return to the original place of residence; 2. Ministers of second grade and above who have been appointed to the new post must go back to the emperor to thank him; 3. Appoint Ci Xi's close friend Rong Lu as the governor of Zhili and have great power.

On June 11th, for the 115th anniversary of the Reform Movement of 1898, why did the conspirators for the country struggle for the power of the enemy?-

In the early morning of September 21, 1898, Empress Dowager Cixi placed Emperor Guangxu under house arrest in Hanyuan Hall of Zhongnanhai, and then queen the Empress Dowager to discipline. Since then, since June 11, the 103-day reform campaign ended in failure. History calls the Reform Movement of 1898, also called the Hundred Days Reform. Historians of all ages generally think that they are conservatives, especially the Empress Dowager Cixi, whose representative is opposed to the new law, and counterattacked by force, resulting in the failure of the Reform Movement of 1898. Mr. Liang Qichao , one of the main initiators of the Reform Movement, wrote the "Couple of the Reform Movement of 1898", which blamed the failure of the reform on the resistance of the conservatives and the Empress Dowager Cixi. This statement is true, but delving into historical details, things are not so simple ...

Same: Can accept foreign affairs

Difference: Guangxu is timid and cowardly, but without his father's caution, Cixi knows human nature and works hard

The Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dezong had a triple personal relationship: they were mothers and sons in name; aunts in blood relationship; aunts and nephews in traditional relatives. Guangxu's biological father, Prince Yixu, was the seventh son of Emperor Daoguang , the younger brother of Emperor Xianfeng , husband of Cixi. Yi Yi married the sister-in-law of the concubine, Ci Xi, to become Fu Jin, and gave birth to Zai, who was later Emperor Guangxu.

History has recorded such a scene. On the night of the death of Emperor Cixi ’s biological son Tongzhi Emperor, at the meeting to decide the heir to the throne, Cixi made a final decision. The only four-year-old Zaiyu passed on to Emperor Xianfeng and himself as the son and became the emperor. . As a father, Yi Zheng "stunned and couldn't rise" on the spot.

Yi Xi, who has experienced the ups and downs of Erhai Lake throughout his life, knows Cixi very well, and understands that Cixi's real purpose in doing so is to grasp the imperial power and make his son a nameless puppet. Not only can he not be a father and a child, but because of his relationship with the emperor, he is likely to be the target of Ci Xi's blow.

Yi Yi is cautious in her life, always respectful to Ci Xi. Judging from the fact that his son succeeded and fainted, it can be seen that Yi Yan's timidity was weak, and Guangxu inherited his character; but Guangxu, who was longer than Shen Gong and had no political experience, had no father's caution.

In contrast, his nominal mother, the Empress Dowager Cixi, who has survived the court battle. As Professor Sui Lijuan of Harbin Normal University pointed out in a series of lectures on "Careing Cixi": "Cixi has its own unique ability, that is, insight into human nature, working on imagination, personal supremacy, being in danger, not afraid to act . This It is the quality that an authoritarian monarch should have! "

The Qing dynasty learned the lessons of the Zhu Ming dynasty, and was very strict in educating the princes. Studying hard is a must for every prince from childhood. Emperor Guangxu, who was under the age of 5 on April 21st, Guangxu (May 14, 1876), officially went to school. During his nearly 20 years of studying in Guangxu, his teacher Weng Tonghe had the greatest influence on him. Weng Tonghe comes from the Shiji family. He is from Hanlin and learns to be rich in five cars . He is a two-generation emperor of Emperor Tongzhi and Emperor Guangxu. His education of Guangxu was not confined to the well-known feudal outlines such as the Four Books and Five Classics , but combined with the rapidly changing world trend, he introduced fresh Chinese and foreign history and geography and the writings of radical early Enlightenment thinkers. At that time, the Qing government was actively promoting the Westernization Movement , and Weng Tonghe incorporated related affairs and objects into the emperor's education curriculum.

It should be noted that Weng Tonghe added these courses in advance with Cixi's consent. On the issue of education in Guangxu, we can see the pragmatic and enlightened side of Ci Xi.

Ci Xi did not have the ideal ambition of "reading the self and self-cultivation of the country and governing the country", but had a natural instinct for politicians to seek benefits and avoid harm. In his half-century governing career, he is less obstinate and more pragmatic. This profoundly affected the situation in the late Qing Dynasty.

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After the Reform Movement of 1898, Cixi wanted to cut seven people. Why is there only "six gentlemen"?

In 1898, after the failure of the Reform Movement of 1898 , Tan Kun and other six men were generously resigned at the execution ground of Caishikou, Beijing.

They are the famous "six gentlemen of the Wu era" in modern Chinese history.

However, few people know that it was not 6 people, but 7 people that the Empress Dowager Cixi was going to kill first. The seventh gentleman was Xu Zhijing, the right attendant of the Ministry of Rites at the time.

Xu Zhijing (1826-1918), Zi Zijing, from Yixing, Jiangsu, is open-minded and champions innovation. He once gave the famous Emperor Guangxu a "Talent Sponsor" and sponsored Kang Youwei , Liang Qichao , Tan Yitong, Zhang Yuanji and other reformers. Cixi launched a coup d'état that year, imprisoned Emperor Guangxu, and arrested reformist officials. Xu Zhijing also went to prison.

The first person Ci Ci immediately wrote was Xu Zhijing. Li Hongzhang and Xu Zhijing's father were fellow scholars and close friends, and had a close personal relationship. Li Hongzhang tried every means to save Xu. He knew that it was inappropriate for him to rescue Xu Zhijing, so he had to ask Cixi's red man Rong Lu for help. Frustrated, Rong Lu had to intercede with Ci Xi. Unexpectedly, Ci Xi was furious and blamed Rong Lu for excusing the Emperor Party. Rong Lu immediately knelt complained that Xu Zhijing was just a nerd and did n’t know the New Deal. He only sang Kunqu and played Go in the reformists, and the emperor had never called him once within 3 months after the announcement of the reform.

Cixi immediately sent an eunuch to inquire. Due to court rules, the emperor must keep a record of anyone he calls, and he will know at the first glance. The eunuch returned a check and said: The emperor did not call Xu Zhijing within 3 months. This time Cixi turned a little bit. In addition, Ronglu was her most beloved person. Cixi reassigned Xu Zhijing as "awaiting death" (that is, suspended death).

Xu Zhijing did not die, and the "seven gentlemen of the Emperor Wu" became "six gentlemen." After Xu Zhijing was released from prison, he has been living in Hangzhou and changed his name to Xu Zhihuan, which means that the "six gentlemen" were killed and the only remaining death under the sword.

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When was the Reform Movement of 1898? How many days did the Reform Movement of 1898 last?

When was the Reform Movement of 1898 ? How many days did the Reform Movement of 1898 last?

The Reform Movement of 1898, also known as the Hundred Days Reform, refers to the bourgeois reformists with Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao as the main leaders from June to September 21, 1898. They advocated learning the West through the Emperor Guangxu , advocated science and culture, and reformed politics. Education system, and develop political reforms in agriculture, industry, and commerce. However, the Reform Movement of 1898 was strongly resisted and opposed by the old factions led by the Empress Dowager Cixi . On September 21, 1898, the Empress Dowager Cixi and others launched a coup d'état. , Japan, Tan Jitong, Kang Guangren, Lin Xu, Yang Shenxiu, Yang Rui, and Liu Guang were killed. A total of 103 days of reform failed. Therefore, the Reform Movement of 1898 was also called the Hundred Days Reform.

The Reform Movement of 1898 was an important political reform in the history of modern China. It was also an ideological enlightenment movement, which promoted the emancipation of the mind, and played an important role in promoting social progress and the development of ideology and culture.

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Brief Introduction to the Time Background of the Reform Movement of 1898 What is the main content of the Reform Movement of 1898?

The Reform Movement of 1898 , also known as the Hundred Days Reform, refers to the bourgeois reformists with Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao as the main leaders from June to September 21, 1898. They advocated learning the West through the Emperor Guangxu , advocated science and culture, and reformed politics. Education system, and develop political reforms in agriculture, industry, and commerce. However, the Reform Movement of 1898 was strongly resisted and opposed by the old factions led by the Empress Dowager Cixi . On September 21, 1898, the Empress Dowager Cixi and others launched a coup d'état. , Japan, Tan Jitong, Kang Guangren, Lin Xu, Yang Shenxiu, Yang Rui, and Liu Guang were killed. A total of 103 days of reform failed.

The Reform Movement of 1898 was an important political reform in the history of modern China. It was also an ideological enlightenment movement, which promoted the emancipation of the mind, and played an important role in promoting social progress and the development of ideology and culture.

I. Background of the Reform Movement of 1898

International situation

economic

The second half of the 19th century was a period of rapid development of capitalism. During this period, the rapid development of science and technology caused the second industrial revolution. The second industrial revolution promoted the rapid development of capitalism and began the transition to a monopoly stage. The United States, Germany, Britain, France, and other countries that have long established capitalist systems are at the forefront of the world, while Russia and Japan, which were relatively backward, have developed rapidly after the development of capitalism. Under this situation, changing the old system and the old productive forces, and developing capitalism has become a world trend at that time.

political

In the late 19th century, European and European capitalist countries passed parliamentary reforms, etc., so that more people gained the right to vote and participate in politics, and political democratization was further expanded. Britain, the United States, and other countries have achieved reforms in the civil service system, rectified the administration of officials, and improved the efficiency of administrative management, thereby ensuring the normal operation of the capitalist society. The political system of capitalism has become increasingly perfect in the long run. These countries have provided examples for the Chinese to establish a capitalist system.

Domestic situation

social background

The national crisis has deepened. At the end of the 19th century, the world ’s major capitalist countries: Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and Portugal successively entered the stage of imperialism, so they intensified their invasion of backward countries and regions. Western powers took the opportunity to set off a tide of dividing China. The vast China has been divided into "spheres of influence" of big powers, and the whole country has been divided . A new crisis has emerged in China's frontier regions; with the signing of the " Maguan Treaty ", China has once again suffered from land parcels, compensation, and the doom of massive loss of sovereignty. The fiasco defeat of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 accelerated the process of semi-colonization in Chinese society. The critical situation of extinction and extinction has forced some advanced Chinese to start looking for new ways to save the country and the people.

economic basis

The preliminary development of Chinese national capitalism. There were three reasons for the initial development of national capitalism during this period: First, the stimulus brought by the invasion of imperialism. The "Macao Treaty" allowed the powers to set up factories in commercial ports, the powers have stepped up capital exports, and China's self-sufficient natural economy has been further damaged. This objectively promoted the development of China's urban and rural commodity economy, and created some conditions for the development of China's national industry. Second, in the Westernization Movement , Westernization slogans "self-improvement" and "improvement of wealth" established a The criticism of modern industrial enterprises has played a guiding and stimulating role in the development of Chinese national capitalism. Third, because some awakened people regard the development of national capitalism and resistance to foreign business and foreign factories as one of the means to save the nation from peril, they issued In response to the call of "industry to save the country", we took advantage of the opportunity to vigorously develop national industry. At the end of the 19th century, China ’s national capitalism had developed tentatively, providing an economic basis for the bourgeoisie to carry out the reform and reform movement.

Class basis

The growth of the national bourgeoisie. With the initial development of national capitalism, the economic strength of the Chinese national bourgeoisie has continued to increase, and they have begun to seek political rights consistent with their economic status. As a new political force, the national bourgeoisie began to enter the political arena, laying a class foundation for the Reform Movement of 1898.

Ideological basis

Development of new ideas since modern times

After the Opium War, China ’s national crisis became more serious, and the crisis of feudal rule deepened step by step. The advanced Chinese people began to think about what way to save China. Lin Zexu , Wei Yuan and others advocated "learning from the west", and issued a call for "teachers and foreigners to control the barbarians", which became the first to learn from the west. However, their ideas were not put into practice due to various restrictions. Westerners put the idea of "learning from the west" into action. The Westernization Movement from the 1860s to the 1990s, under the guidance of the idea of "learning from middle schools and using western learning", mainly studied advanced Western science and technology, hoping to achieve the purpose of "self-improvement" and "pursuit of wealth". The Westernization Movement started the modernization of China. But the fiasco defeat of the Sino-Japanese War of the Sino-Japanese War showed that relying on the Westernization Movement could not save China.

Seeds of early bourgeois reform ideas

Many of the early bourgeois reformers personally participated in the practice of the Westernization Movement. After the failure of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, they believed that the Westernization Movement was not enough to focus on "controllers". What China really wanted to learn was the advanced political system in the West. The early reformers mainly proposed reforms for some specific issues, without forming a complete theoretical system. They only carry out some theoretical propaganda, rarely engage in actual political activities, and have great limitations. Nevertheless, the wave of reform thoughts they set off still had a wide-ranging influence and played a leading role in the development of Kang and Liang's thoughts.

Further development of the idea of reform

Under the banner of "Tuogu Reform", Kang Youwei combined western capitalist political doctrine with Chinese traditional Confucianism to promote reform. The reason why he used the name of Confucius to propagate the western political system, Kang Youwei's thought was very shocking at that time, and laid the theoretical foundation for the reform and reform. But he still has a strong feudal color in his mind, which reflects his compromise with the feudal stubborn forces.

Liang Qichao further expanded the influence of the reform thought. Liang Qichao's reform thought had a great response among some patriotic intellectuals and enlightened bureaucrats at that time, which greatly strengthened the momentum of the reform and reform.

Yan Fu believes that in order to save China, it is necessary to restore it, and to restore it, it is necessary to have a "western learning". By publishing articles and translating Western works, he ruthlessly attacked the feudal stubborn ideas and put forward reform ideas of "inspiring the people", "opening people's wisdom", and "new people's morality." Although Yan Fu did not participate in the practice of the Reform Movement, his introduction and propaganda of Western studies played an ideological and enlightening role in early modern intellectuals, and also provided a powerful ideological weapon for the Reform Movement of 1898.

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The Causes and Lessons of the Failure of the Reform Movement of 1898

The Hundred Days Reform is a reform movement in modern Chinese history. The reasons for its failure are mainly reflected in the following aspects: First, the mental preparation for the reform is not sufficient. The theory of reform was not fully accepted by the Chinese people, so it lacked guidance and persuasion; it was not powerful enough to mobilize the ideology of social forces, the power of reform was weak, and it lacked a deep ideological foundation; the leaders of reform were not aware of the complexity of reform. Secondly, they are too eager in their actions and eager to achieve success ; the reform is too radical and fails to unite the majority and fight too hard; not only fails to differentiate and disintegrate the feudal forces, but also isolates itself in all aspects; deviates from reality and adopts advanced behavior, Intensified the spear quality.

The Hundred Days of Reform in 1898 brought a glimmer of light to the dark, feudal and authoritarian China. However, the vigorous reform movement ended with the six gentlemen's bloody vegetables. There are many reasons for its failure, or it cannot be completely anti-imperialist and anti-feudal, or the contrast of power is too great, or imperialism does not allow China to develop capitalism, or the road to improvement cannot be reached. This article focuses on the failure of the reformers from their own capabilities and qualities, and whether they have the talents to lead the reform. The author believes that the reformers are eager to achieve success, the lack of theoretical preparation, the aggressiveness of the reforms, and the inappropriateness of strategic measures. An important reason for the failure of the reform.

I. Inadequate mental preparation for the reform

The reform is a social change involving the interests of different classes and different classes. Engels pointed out: "Every new progress must be manifested as a raid on a sacred thing, as a rebellion against an old, decaying order that is worshiped by habits." Chuan therefore needs to change the law. People from all walks of life must be awakened to mobilize a mighty army of reformers, but the ideological preparations for the Reform Movement of 1898 were not sufficient, and the whole society did not form a strong trend of innovation.

1. Reform theory lacks persuasiveness

Any social change must be guided by the theory of progress, and it can be transformed into a huge material force only under the conditions that this theory is accepted by people. The theoretical basis of the Reformists' reforms is mainly reflected in Kang Youwei 's "Xin Xuexue Jing Kao" and " Confucius Reform System", the former is aimed at shabby, and the latter is establishing new ones. These two works are unprecedented "reversals" and "revolutions" of traditional Confucianism. When they were published, they were like "one of the great ideas in the world", such as a volcanic earthquake, which caused a great shock. Kang Youwei borrowed the authority of Confucius and played the banner of the reform of Tugu. The original intention was to reduce the resistance of the reform, but the result was counterproductive. First, Kang's doctrine was strongly resisted by diehards. They regard "Classical Classics" as the foundation of their own, regard Kangliang's doctrine as a beast of flood, and attack Kangliang as "a pseudo-six and destroy the Bible, entrust reform and become a constitution, and uphold the civil rights without supremacy, which is indeed a Shilin scum." .

Secondly, Westerners also opposed. Zhang Zhidong attacked Kang Liang's "evil atrocities and ransacked the world" in "Persuasion". Second, most scholars and emperor bureaucrats who sympathized with the reformists were also negative on this theory. In terms of modern thought history, the bold impact of Kang's theory on orthodox thought, such as a rock-shattering shock, played a role in emancipating the mind; but in terms of reform, Kang Youwei's doctrine confused academic and politics. The "Pseudo-Scripture Test" challenges the traditional Confucianism in an all-round way. The "Reformed Test" also lacks historical basis and is difficult to convince people. Instead, it causes too much controversy, confusion, and doubt, leaving intellectuals in a perplexed situation. The die-hard repression reformers were given the handle of "disorder". Therefore, the negative effects of Kang's theory outweigh the positive effects.

2. Insufficient ideological mobilization of social forces

The reform is a profound social change. Whether social forces are fully mobilized or not is related to the success or failure of the reform. Before the Meiji Restoration in Japan, its reformers conducted long-term infiltration and ideological enlightenment in areas where feudal rule was weak. By the end of the shogunate, peasants, citizens, emerging landlords, the bourgeoisie, usurer, and lower-level warriors, from the standpoint of different social interest groups, strongly demanded that the old feudal system be reformed to form a huge reform force. This is an important condition for Japan's success.

From the rise of the thoughts of the Reformation to the promulgation of the Emperor Guangxu's Proclamation on Reform, the thoughts of the Reformation have stirred up China for about 40 years, but this is only a drop in the ocean of thought history. The direct motivation for the reform is the high "emotion" rather than the mature "thought". Kang Youwei waited for the patriotic enthusiasm when the crisis of national defeat and extinction caused by the defeat of the Sino-Japanese War of the Sino-Japanese War. He appealed for change, and organized a society, founded a journal, promoted the idea of reform, and launched a movement of emancipating the mind in the intellectual world. However, the resistance is quite large, and many publications and societies have disappeared from time to time. Its impact is limited to Beijing, Shanghai, and Hunan. The idea of reform has not yet been widely spread and accepted by people. In the ideological circles on the eve of the Hundred Days of Reform, the reformists only took a minority, the more conservative ones, and most of them were neutral. According to Yan Fu's estimation, the Reform Party and the old school are in a ratio of one to a thousand. Even in Hunan Province, which is known as the country's most energetic, the old school is quite powerful, not to mention other provinces. At that time, a few Chinese national capitalists were not enthusiastic about the reform, they lacked the independent character who dared to fight, and did not fully support and protect their own advocates, the Reformers. The idea of reform was not only strongly opposed by the old school and the ancient scripture school. At the same time, the reform did not have the direct participation of Western students, and it lacked the powerful coordination and cooperation of the powerful factions such as Zhang Zhidong and Li Hongzhang . Kang Liang could be described as fighting alone.

As for the broad masses of people, they are basically separated from political life. The heroic view of the history of the Reformers prevented them from engaging in enlightenment of the "public wisdom", and ordinary people were still shrouded in the fog of oldism. They did not understand the ideas of the Reformers, and they could not understand the good intentions of the reformers to save the country and the world. The reform and reform came at a time when the Chinese people's anti-imperialist patriotic movement continued to rise and anti-foreign religion movements and Boxer movements flourished. Due to the invasion of the great powers, the people's anti-aggression struggle inevitably has a blind and irrational emotion. At this time, the Sino-Japanese War was only over 3 years ago, and the wounds of the war had not yet been resolved. The reformers actually ignored the national sentiments of the people and praised the culprit who launched the Sino-Japanese War. He was called to see him as the savior of China's reform and reform.

The reformers hoped that the foreigners helped China's reform and formed a huge contrast with the general xenophobia, which added obstacles to this progressive movement of learning from the West. The vigorous hundred-day reforms did not bring any practical benefits to the people. None of the reform measures related to the land issues that farmers were most concerned about, and some new policy measures even harmed the people's interests. Because the Reformists failed to enlighten the people, it was difficult for the common people to understand the relationship between anti-imperialist anti-aggression and learning from the West to save the country. The gap between them and the Reformists was deep and they showed indifference to the reform.

It can be seen that during the Wuxu era, the ideological mobilization of the social forces of the reform party was extremely inadequate, and the reform was lacking a deep ideological foundation, whether it was in the ideological circle, the scholar-official class, or the broad masses.

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What is the significance and impact of the Reform Movement of 1898? How to correctly evaluate the Reform Movement of 1898

Why did the Reform Movement of 1898 fail?

After all, the reform and reform were still to maintain the interests of the feudal rulers, they could not save China fundamentally, and they did not realize the importance of the armed forces, and they were not suitable for the social nature of China ’s backward semi-feudal and semi-colonial colonies. Failure was a historical necessity. Moreover, the leaders of the Reform and Reform did not unite the broad masses of the people, did not realize the nature of the problem, and did not succeed even without Yuan Shikai ’s informative change, and the leader of the Reform at that time relied on an emperor without real power, and China ’s The economic situation could not implement the reform at all, and the colonists at the time also interfered in this reform, which led to the failure of the final reform. Therefore, this reform was "a failed and incomplete bourgeois revolution." Although the reform was unsuccessful, its progressiveness and positive effects cannot be denied.

What impact did the Reform Reform have on modern China?

The Reform Movement of 1898, as a reform movement of bourgeois nature in modern China, has progressive significance. Although strangled by the Empress Dowager Cixi , it also laid the groundwork for the 1911 Revolution that erupted 13 years later.

First, it promoted the self-reform of the Qing government. The invasion of the Eight Kingdoms Allied Forces in 1900, the Empress Dowager Cixi fled to Xi'an with Guangxu , which taught Cixi a bitter lesson. After signing the "Umbrella Peace Treaty", the Empress Dowager Cixi ordered the implementation of the New Deal, which included the preparation of a new army; the abolishment of imperial examinations and the establishment of schools; the award of private factories; the reform of the legal system; the sending of five ministers to study abroad, and the preparation of a constitution; Council, etc. Some of these reforms have gone beyond the content of the reform and reform of that year.

Second, it aroused public resentment against the Manchurian government, and promoted the transformation of intellectuals from reform to revolution. After the failure of the 1898 coup, the support for Sun Yat-sen's revolution increased, and many intellectuals who had fantasies about the Qing government turned into revolutionaries.

Third, it has promoted China's ideological emancipation movement.

(1) The theory of reform is more deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. It is generally believed that there is no way out, that change is the common sense of ancient and modern times, and that China should also change greatly and completely.

(2) Further spread of democratic thought. The Reformers only dared to talk about "civil rights" and recognized the people's right to participate in the management of politics, but they did not dare to talk about "democracy" and refused to recognize the people as the masters of the country and society. After the Reform Movement of 1898, the trend of democratic thought has fully developed.

(3) A new round of enthusiasm for seeking the truth of saving the country from the West has been stirred up. After the failure of the Reform Movement of 1898, more young people went abroad to study, and more western doctrines were translated into China, and China's intellectual circle became more active.

Fourth, it became a prelude to the May Fourth New Culture Movement . After the Reform Movement of 1898, new cultural undertakings flourished, and there was a fever of running schools in the country. There was a fever of launching new newspapers and periodicals, and a fever of publishing new books. During the Reform Movement, in order to " enlighten " the people, the reformers advocated vernacular and "revolution in the novel world". After the failure of the Reform Movement, vernacular newspapers appeared more frequently, and vernacular texts were more advocated. In addition to the "fiction revolution", the Reformers continued to advocate "poetic revolution", "qu revolution", "ideological revolution", "moral revolution", "religious revolution" and even "historical revolution". All these have started the May 4th New Culture Movement. Therefore, strictly speaking, the modern Chinese new cultural movement started from the Wuxu period.

Fifth, it is a political reform movement, a patriotic salvation movement, and an emancipation movement. At the moment when the national crisis was intensifying, the reformers hoped that China could become stronger through the reform, thereby breaking away from the aggression of the imperialist powers, showing a strong patriotic enthusiasm, and also a preliminary attempt by the bourgeoisie to change the social system. The Reformers sought to establish a bourgeois constitutional monarchy politically. Economically developing national capitalism is in line with historical development trends. It is also a liberation of the ideological trend in modern China. The bourgeoisie, following the reformists, advocated new learning, advocated the rights of the people, and violently attacked feudal thought, which promoted the awakening of the Chinese people.

The Reform Movement of 1898 was the first positive and beneficial attempt in China's modern political reform. The Chinese people had an indelible historical merit in the post of the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal struggle during the old democratic revolution. Although it lasted a short time, it has left precious experience and lessons. An in-depth analysis of the reasons for its failure has certain reference significance for our reform cause today.

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What is the real reason for the success of the Meiji Restoration and the failure of the Reform Movement of 1898?

Both the Reform Movement of 1898 and the Meiji Restoration took place in two neighboring countries in Asia. But history has proven that Japan and China have achieved very different results. Japan succeeded in reform, but China failed completely! Why Japan succeeded, but China failed. The reasons are that the social system, the people's thinking, the method and content of the reform at that time determined the failure of China and the success of Japan!

From the perspective of the reformed social system, before China's reform, China was a society with a traditional feudal ruling system, and it was defeated by the Opium War of 1840. China's relations with the world have seen unprecedented changes. China's regime development system is a "centralized power" development method! At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the system had been the peak of the entire dynasty's centralized power, and imperial power had penetrated into all aspects of people's lives. Managers of social institutions have very little power. The reform means changing the centralized power system and challenging the centralized power system, which will definitely endanger the kingship. The traditional Chinese dynasty did not allow such a situation. The stumbling blocks of the reform were virtually greater in China! Since ancient times, most of the reforms have shed blood, and China has adopted a compromise attitude and hopes that it can be resolved without force. The reform did not receive the support of the public. It ’s just the consciousness of the reformer, who is determined to do it alone! This method of reformation sown the seeds of failure early.

In Japan, the social changes under the same feudal system, but the Japanese reform became thorough. Make Japan move towards modernization and westernization, and gradually keep up with the world's tide. Subsequently, history has proven that the trend of transcending the world's powers is at the forefront of the world. A leap into a world power has enabled Japan to have capital for foreign aggression, and small island nations to participate in the World War, calling for wind and rain , and setting off a frenzy of world division. All these results were brought about by a rebellious revolution. Japan completely reformed the law, wisely removed the negative factors for the advancement of Japanese society, and destroyed the old feudal order. Then, implement major changes in politics, economy, and society. Since then, the Meiji government has implemented three policies: a rich country, a strong military, a prosperous industry, and a civilized civilization. Wealthy nations and powerful soldiers are to reform the military and police system, establish an arms industry, implement a military recruiting system, and establish a new army and police system. It is the foundation of the country. Development; Civilization, study of Western civilization, development of modern education, improvement of national knowledge, and training of modern talents.

In terms of ideology, the Chinese have been closed for a long time and they have affected the people's understanding of the world under the feudal system. The people are bound by all kinds of feudal ideas, and under the feudal system, studying the ruled ideas needed by the feudal for a long time erodes people's understanding of the world. When the artillery fire hits the doorstep of the house, many people still begging for blessing from heaven How many people can take the sword and participate in the battle independently. As long as everyone can unite independently, maybe China will be even more brilliant today! At that time, when capitalism came to China, the Chinese did not know what it was! When we made it ourselves When gunpowder was used strangely, we knew we were falling behind! It is not the Chinese stupidity. We have four inventions that prove that we are a great nation, but the Chinese people ’s ideas and concepts have been eroded by the rulers. We have always forgotten progress! When capitalism came to China, the people did not have the right ideas to match the rule of the rulers. Capitalist consciousness is hard in China.

In Japan, the Japanese worshipped the "Samurai" spirit, which has always been accepted by the people. Obedience is determined by obedience to their obedience! Although their thinking was also a product of the times, the Japanese turned it into the tool of thought leadership they needed. Lead the people of the country to find strength and prosperity in a time of raging war. With wise leaders and conscious leaders, Japan ’s national development is relatively impedimental and less difficult to change its ideas. The conditions for social change in the Japanese are relatively mature.

China lacked a leader who could make social change at that time, and no wise leader dared to stand up and challenge the social system at that time by force! No one could integrate the modern feudal system at that time to develop a strong and prosperous power. Kang Youwei was a failed failure in history. . However, it has made an indelible contribution to China's development and exerted influence on its continuous progress and progress.

In terms of the content of the reform, the content of the Reform Reform: in politics, warned court officials to renew old plans, implement a new policy, encourage officials, gentlemen, and citizens to write and speak, and prohibit officials from blocking; ordering provincial governors to recommend new policy talents who have access to current affairs; streamlining institutions, Redundant staff

The privilege of being supported by the State allows for self-employment. This policy affects the interests of many people in the royal family of the feudal dynasty. Without dialogue with fists, it is difficult to convince everyone. The wave of opposition is stronger than the wave. It is only the reformist stubbornness and the support of those who do not have power. In terms of economy, the capital established the railway The Bureau of Mines and the General Administration of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce protect the development of agricultural, industrial and commercial businesses; promote the establishment of private factories; set up the General Administration of Railways and Mining to encourage commercial railways and mining; the establishment of national banks; the award of inventions; the reform of finances, the preparation of national budget accounts; the removal of post stations , The establishment of a post office; in the military area, the abolition of the Green Battalion, the refinement of the army, the reform of foreign operations; the implementation of a draft system; the addition of a navy. In terms of culture and education, the Beijing Normal University College was opened, and elementary and middle school classrooms were set up in various places to study both Chinese and Western liberal arts; abolition of eight shares, reform of the theory of trials, and the establishment of economic specialties; the establishment of translation bureaus, the translation of new foreign books; permission to set up newspapers and societies; and sending people to study abroad ,travel.在教育方面,戊戌变法作出最大的贡献。

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戊戌变法中改革者自身有哪些失误?

古今变法,都一定会触及既得利益。因此一定会遭到依靠旧制度不合理之处寻租的既得利益者反对。如果改革者的策略不对,也有可能遭到不是依靠寻租、而是依靠公平竞争获得既得利益者的反对。寻租和非寻租既得利益者的联合反对,很有可能导致改革的失败。历史不可能重演,但是历史的教训必须记取。我国今天的改革已经进入深水区,有必要回顾一下当年戊戌变法失败的教训,以为今鉴。

戊戌变法失败的原因,已经有很多人分析过。通常的说法都是归于慈禧为首的保守势力的反对, 袁世凯的告密等。但对于改革者自身的失误分析比较少。象戊戌变法这样在民族危亡时刻展开的全面改革,有反对者是很正常的。改革的成败,关键在于改革者是否能够因势利导。现在让我们分析一下改革者自身有哪些失误。

其一,变法没有顶层设计,事情想得太简单、太急于求成了。维新派领袖康有为一生仅仅面见过一次光绪帝。 光绪帝向其抱怨反对势力强大,自己没权等。康有为对光绪帝强调三点。一是坚定变法决心,必须变法,全变,大变,不能枝节之变。二是变法的美妙前景,“泰西(注1)讲求三百年而治,日本施行三十年而强,吾中国国土之大,人民之众,变法三年,可以自立,此后则蒸蒸日上,富强可驾万国。”“以皇上之圣,图自强,在于反掌间耳”。三是针对皇上无权的情况,“就皇上现在之权,行可变之事,虽不能尽变,而扼要以图,亦足以救中国。”对于中国社会的小农经济结构、缺乏商法、民法的传统(注2),对于如何建立改革的统一战线和依靠力量,如何用增量带动存量改革,改革的分步展开都没有冷静的思考和系统的设计,没有建设性的意见。改革是改错,一般不到生死攸关的绝望关头,政治势力没有断然改革的勇气,但面临绝境的改革却为改革布下了地雷阵和万丈悬崖的陷阱。改革的绝境环境,使得改革的主导者不能犯大错。一旦稍有失误,反对者就将以失误作为攻讦的口实,观望者却以之为退缩的砝码,改革者也难确保自己的心。这时刻,不仅需要康有为鼓励光绪帝壮士断腕。更需要以其为首的维新派妥善安排全局、步步理性的谋篇布局、通盘规划;还要有吸纳各股势力、化干戈为玉帛、杜绝兄弟阋墙的内部损耗的胸襟与气魄。但是客观地说,这些必要的功课维新派并没有做。自公历1898年6月11日发布《定国是诏书》,百日维新期间共计发布变法诏令184条,包括政治、经济、文化教育等各个方面。对此,时任海关总税务司的赫德指出:“他们把足够的东西不顾它的胃量和消化能力,在三个月之内,都填塞给它吃了。”当时大部分地方对于光绪帝的政令都没有忠实执行。但是就连忠实执行皇帝政令的湖南省都跟不上变法的步伐。

Emperor Guangxu

其二,不懂得建立改革的统一战线。以光绪和慈禧的关系处理为例,当时的权力结构是帝—后结构,光绪虽然是合法的皇帝,但他不仅仅是没有实权,关键是没有政治斗争经验;慈禧虽然已经归政,但她是个政治女强人,一旦不玩政治就非常难受,朝中大臣多是她的亲信,实权实际上是掌握在慈禧手中。不管维新派是否愿意,这就是现实。光绪如果能够承认现实,处理好与慈禧的关系,利用慈禧的政治经验和在大臣中的威望,实际上可以增加变法的胜算。在1897年11月德国占领胶州湾后,光绪痛哭流涕 ,慈禧曾安慰皇帝说:“苟可致富强者,尔自为之,吾不内制也”。在争取慈禧支持变法之前,按理应该母子俩互相敞开谈一下,取得彼此的谅解和支持,也适当地宽慰慈禧归政后感觉被冷落的心理(注3)。但光绪很不策略地请庆亲王奕劻转述住在颐和园的慈禧,“如太后不同意变法,我愿退让此位,不敢做亡国之君”。当时国家危机重重,光绪这样说实际上是在以撂挑子为要挟,激化矛盾 。慈禧恶狠狠地说:“由他去办,事办不出模样,再说。”这实际上是把慈禧推到了变法的对立面。以致变法开始第5天,慈禧就命宠臣荣禄署理直隶总督,掌握京津一带兵权;规定今后新任二品以上大臣,必须向皇太后上折谢恩;将帝党核心人物、光绪帝的师傅翁同龢削职为民。事实上慈禧要的是权,并不是反对变法图强。在亲手扼杀了戊戌变法后的两年,1901年1月29日,慈禧在西安颁布新政上谕,清末新政在慈禧亲自推动下动。但可惜的是由君主专制向君主立宪制改革的窗口期已经过去,民主共和的大幕已经拉开,这是后话(注4)。

其三,康梁与光绪主导的维新事业除继承洋务实业改革外,更强调体制的变化,这是对的。但维新事业的体制变革,重在除旧而非创新,重在存量而不是增量,或因为时间的关系未能充分展开。但维新大刀阔斧式的除旧改革,一下子触犯了社会各阶层太多的既得利益。如裁官、裁军;满人自谋出路;废八股,改策论等。“戊戌变政,首在裁官。京师闲散衙门被裁者不下十余处,连带关系因之失职失业者将及万人,朝野震骇,颇有民不聊生之戚”(摘自《梦蕉亭杂记》)。再拿科举考试废八股来说,自明代以来就一直有此论。但不见得在变法伊始就做。康梁将其作为重要改革措施,曾激发上下愤怒。赶考的士子们应该都是当时社会上有学问、有地位的人,是依靠苦读书公平竞争出来的非寻租既得利益者,应该是变法所应争取的主要支持群体之一,但由于这项改革侵犯了他们的既得利益,士子们曾手拿大棒围在梁启超家门口,声称要打断梁的狗腿。

其四,没有扎实建立改革的依靠力量。戊戌变法的维新势力仅以有资产阶级倾向的士大夫知识分子为核心,依靠没有实权的皇帝,联合少数官僚。既没有基地,也无兵权、财权,“与守旧党比,不过千与一之比,其数极小”。因此,守旧势力一反扑,维新势力顷刻瓦解。而东邻日本在1868年明治维新时,以中下级武士为核心,抬出天皇为旗帜,与反幕府的强藩相结合,既有基地,又有军队,广大农民和市民也积极参加和支持反幕武装,因此组成了强大的维新阵营,一举推翻了幕府旧政权。

其五,私心太重。欲借外国之力,达到一己之私。据《康南海自编年谱》,戊戌年“与日本使矢野文雄约两国合邦大会议,定稿极详,请矢野君行知总署答允,然后可以大会于各省。”由康有为起草,以掌印御史宋伯鲁名义向皇帝上书的奏章说得更加详细:“英国教士李提摩太来京,往见工部主事康有为,道其来意,……拟联合中国、日本、美国及英国为合邦,共选通达时务、晓畅各国掌故者百人,专理四国兵政税则及一切外交等事,别练兵若干营,以资御侮。……今拟请皇上速简通达外务、名震地球之重臣,如大学士李鸿章者,往见该教士李提摩太及日相伊藤博文 ,与之商酌办法,以工部主事康有为为参赞,必能转祸为福,以保我宗社。”(注5)此等亡国之策,其荒唐程度,已无需多言。康有为之所以如鬼迷心窍般积极推进此事,乃在于幻想借外力挤入核心决策层。之前,他已先后尝试通过“开制度局”、“开懋勤殿”等手段来架空朝廷既有的军机处、六部衙门以及地方督抚臬司,但均告失败。

综上所述,戊戌变法的失败,主要还是维新派自身没有练好内功,私心太重。 Lessons from the past, lessons learned from the aftermath.愿当今的改革者们汲取戊戌变法失败的教训,谨慎地规划改革路线图,建立改革的依靠力量和统一战线,坚持发展增量并以增量渐进地带动存量调整(注6),大家一起努力,为中华改革航船顺利度过改革深水区而奋斗!

注1:旧泛指西方国家,一般指欧美各国。

注2:丁晓良,中国落后的原因到底是什么?http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_60f793a501019lj7.html

注3:有个故事,讲的是有一天荣禄去颐和园看西太后,西太后在扎花,荣禄就乘机拍马屁,说老佛爷的花扎得真好啊。这时西太后长叹一声:“往后哇,我也就只能扎花了!”这话说得很无奈,可见她非常地落寞惆怅。

注4:丁晓良,为什么说改革有窗口期?http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_60f793a501018nk4.html

注5:《请速简重臣结连与国以安社稷而救危亡折》(康有为代宋伯鲁作),《戊戌变法档案史料》,P170。

注6:丁晓良,中国由增量改革带动存量改革的方式可持续吗?http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_60f793a50101811m.html

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Conclusion

在线一本码道高清戊戌维新运动是中国资产阶级的政治到表维新派领导的爱国救亡运动。维新派在民族危亡的关键时刻,高举救亡图存的旗帜,要求改革封建的社会制度,发展资本主义,是中国走上独立富强的道路。他们的政治事件和思想理论,不仅贯穿着强烈的爱国主义精神,而且顺应了中国近代历史法杖的趋势。

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