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The Yue Kingdom (2032 BC-222 BC), located in the southeast of Yangzhou, was a vassal state established by the Huaxia people in Southeast China during the Xia Shang, Western Zhou, and Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods. The first ancestors were the uncle of Xia Dynasty's monarch Shao Kang , a direct descendant of Dayu . The Yue State, Qi State, Qiang State, and Qiang State were all sealed off by descendants of the descendants of Dayu. Yue Guofeng is located on the south (yang) side of Ou Yushan. Hoof (Jai Xun) Kaiji is Ouyang's . The Yue Kingdom is mainly centered on the Tomb of Yu Wang in Shaoxing. At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, Yun often had conflicts with Wu Guo and attacked each other. In 496 before the death of Yun Chang, Gou Jian took the throne. In 473, Gou Jian destroyed Wu Guo, sent troops north to cross the Huai River, and joined the princes of Qi and Jin in Xuzhou to offer tribute to the Zhou royal family. The sphere of influence once reached Qilu in the north, bordering the East China Sea in the east, reaching the Anhui-Huai-Hua and Jiangxi in the west, and the southeast in the male.

Vietnam

State of Vietnam-the princely state of the pre-Qin period

Demystification: How did Vietnam perish in history?

The Kingdom of Yue (2032 BC-222 BC) was a vassal state established by the Huaxia people in southeast China during the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. The monarch was the surname, and its ancestor was the uncle of the Xia Dynasty ruler Shao Kang . Direct descendants of Yu . It passed from Wuyu to Yuewang without borders (the kingdom of Yue went to split after Wujiang died, and all of them had orthodox self, and they were all destroyed by Qin Shihuang ). They experienced forty-eight monarchs, with a total history of about 1,800 years. The longest vassal state.

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According to legend, after the founding of the Xia Dynasty by Dayu's son Xia Qi, it was passed to Xia Emperor Shao Kang. In order to continue the guarding and sacrifice work of the King Yu's Mausoleum, Shao Kang sealed his sister-in-law in Hueiji. "," Yueyue. " The Xia Dynasty existed in the situation of the tribal alliance. At that time, "Yueyue" was known as "Yueyue Tribe", which was the predecessor of Yue Kingdom.

In the Spring and Autumn Period, the Yue country gradually developed and became a threat to the security of the Qi country . Qi Xionggong once said, "The kingdom of the world cannot be stronger than the Yue. Today, the lonely people want to go to the north and leave their branches alone. Do you have any idea for this? "It can be seen that at that time, Qi Jiong , who was as strong as the" Five Bulls of Spring and Autumn ", was afraid of Yue attacking Qi. However, the Central Plains culture developed rapidly, and due to its remote geographical location, the Yue Kingdom was gradually marginalized, until Wu Yue returned to the rivers and lakes in the late spring and autumn.

In 585 BC, Wu country quickly rose with the support of Jin country. During the Wu Wangshoumeng period, the confrontation between Wu and Chu began. The strength of Wu country brought a huge threat to Chu country behind the Central Plains hegemony. There is no Wu Shi without age ", Chu Jun is miserable ! According to historical records: Chu Guoling Yin Zizhong was harassed by Wu Jun many times, led to exhaustion, and eventually died of a heart attack (estimated to be too tired, the heart suffered No). In this regard, the Chu people came up with a good way: Began to support the Yue country behind Wu country to contain Wu country, Wu Yue hegemony began.

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After the reign of Wu Wangzhang, Wu Guo became stronger under his administration and began to become the hegemon of Central Plains. With the help of Wu Zixu and Sun Wu , Wu Wangxu defeated the Yue Kingdom and captured the Taihu Plain. He moved the capital from Zhenjiang to Gusu, and ordered Wu Zixu to build a solid "Chengda City" (now the ancient city of Suzhou). . After Wu Wangxu defeated the Yue Kingdom, he believed that the disaster of the Yue Kingdom had been eliminated, so he turned his gun and attacked the Kingdom of Chu with surprise soldiers. He almost destroyed Chu Kingdom at one time. Unexpectedly, Yue Wang Yunchang attacked Wu Kingdom while taking advantage of the emptiness behind Wu Kingdom. Wu The country was forced to retreat from the Chu country, and the hatred coefficient between Wu and Chu increased rapidly.

In 496 BC, Yue Wang Yunchang died. Wu Wangxun took advantage of the fact that Yue Wang Gou Jian had just ascended the throne and was defeated by the state. Gou Jian used the tactics of the deceased to commit suicide before the battle. While Wu Jun was unprepared, Li defeated Wu Jun in Li Zu, and Wu Wangdi himself was seriously injured and died.

After King Wu was sent to power, he did not forget to take revenge on his father. Only three years later, the husband led the army to defeat Gou Yu in the Jiao Jiao, and besieged him on the mountain of Huojiji, and he dispatched a variety of cultures to bribe Wu Guo Dazaibo (p ,), Ask King Wu for peace. At that time, Wu Zixu believed that it was impossible to agree to the destruction of Yue Guo and eliminate the future troubles, but Wu Wangfu was so proud that he promised Yue Guo to seek peace and only let Gou Jian serve. After Gou practiced Wu, he bears the burden of humiliation. He respectfully served the waiter, and after three years, Fuchao thought that Gou Jian truly submitted to him, and then returned to Gou.

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After returning to China, he was reckless and motivated, and used Fan Ye's vertical and horizontal techniques to incite Wu Guo to fight with Central Plains and other princes such as Jin Guo and Qi Guo, so that he had no time to take into account the Yue Kingdom. At the same time, he adopted the "Five Wu Jiushu" proposed by the language. A few years have greatly increased the national strength of Vietnam. The opportunity for revenge soon came. Wu Wangfuchao was fighting for hegemony with the Central Plains princes, and he led the main force to go north. He learned that Wukong ’s domestic gossip took advantage of the opportunity to attack Wuguo and captured Prince Wuguo. Fucha was rushed back to the army and was defeated. Wu The country has been in a slump since then. A few years later, Wu Guoguo was attacked and broken, Fucha committed suicide, and Wu Guo perished.

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After annihilating Wu, Gou Jian began to participate in the Central Plains hegemony. He led his army to cross the Huaihe River north, joined the princes of Qi and Jin in Xuzhou, and offered tribute to the Zhou royal family. King Zhou Yuan sent people to reward the sacrificial flesh to Gou Jian, calling him "Bo", thus Gou Jian became the last overlord in the Spring and Autumn Period. During Goujin ’s dominance of the Central Plains, he actively developed relations with the Central Plains countries and moved the capital to Langya (now Linyi, Shandong), which laid the foundation for the development of Vietnam in the Warring States Period.

Yue Wang Gou ’s son Yue Wang Luhan and his grandson Yue Wang Bu Shou continued to adhere to the policy of treating the princes with courtesy, and continued the hegemonic status of the country. This situation was slowed down when Yue Gou killed his father, Yue Wang, and became a queen. Slow has changed. The so-called "Yue people have three kings and their kings". Three successive kings usurpants have occurred in the country of Yue, and internal disturbances have led to their gradual decline. It has also made the later King Wang Wudi relocate the country to Jiangnan, the capital city, and hate it from then on. Withdrawing from the Central Plains, he failed to enter the ranks of the Seven Warlords of the Warring States Period .

In 306 BC, the brother of Yue Wang Wudi Yue Wang Wujiang wanted to emulate the conquest of the Central Plains and sent troops north to attack the country. At that time, King Qi Wei sent a messenger to persuade the King of Yue to conquer the Kingdom of Chu. Qi led the army to defeat the Kingdom of Chu with the division of the Kingdom of Chu. The King of Yue Yue obeyed Qi's strategy and turned his head against the Chu Kingdom. When King Chu Wei led the crowd to meet the enemy, he killed and killed Yue King Wu Jiang before the battle. In the past, many commentators believed that the Yue State had perished since then. In fact, this was a misunderstanding. In fact, at that time, the Chu State was only "to the fullest extent possible to Zhejiang", and did not perish. The vast area south of Zhejiang is still the world of the Yue Kingdom, but the Yue Wang Wujiang did not explicitly designate the heir to the throne, leading his eldest sons and second sons to live in orthodoxy and establish the country.

When Qin Shihuang reigned, there were still two countries on the original Yue Kingdom. The monarchs were the Min Yue King Wu Zhu and the Yue Dong Hai Wang Shao. They were the descendants of Yu Wang ’s eldest son Yu and Second Son Hoof. In 222 BC (twenty-five years before Qin Shihuang), after Qin Shihuang destroyed Chu, the two countries descended on Qin. From then on, Qin set up Huiji County in the Vietnam hometown, and the country died.

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Finally, it is worth mentioning that the "Min-Vietnamese King" who had already descended from Qin Dynasty led the Yue people to participate in the vigorous anti-Qin Uprising, overthrew the Qin Dynasty's rule with the people of the Central Plains, and then assisted Liu Bang to defeat " Xi Chu " Overlord " Xiang Yu , Han Gao's ancestor Liu Bang re-established nothing as the king of Fujian and Vietnam, the capital is located in Dongye (now Fuzhou area), to continue the worship of Vietnam.

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Why is Vietnam the most mysterious country in the history of Spring and Autumn?

Yue Guo, it is said that the ancestors of the Yue people were descendants of Xia Yu. Xia Yu often went to the south when he was in the water. Later, during the hunting, he died of illness in Hueiji and was buried at the foot of Hueiji. During the reign of Shao Kang , he sealed his sister-in-law to Hueiji to serve and worship Xia Yu, so the nation was named "Yueyue" and became the ancestor of Yueshan.

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As a matter of fact, the history of Vietnam is very mysterious, and the history of Vietnam is very scarce. Although scholars from ancient times to modern times have different opinions on the origin of Vietnam, there are still a few points that are definitely certain. The first is that in the literature before the middle of the Spring and Autumn Period, there were few records of Vietnam, and the basic situation of Vietnam was basically unclear. The king of Chuzhuang, "Meng Wu, Yue Hui", should be the earliest document to record Yue. In the early days of the Yue Kingdom, the more common name was "Yue Yue", and the "Spring and Autumn Classics" recorded that the Yue Kingdom entered Wu. The second is the local indigenous customs of the Yue people. " Historical Records " records that "the tattoo is broken, and the grass is covered with straw." The folk customs are tough and combative. "Hanshu" records, "The Kings of Wu and Yue are both brave, so their people have used swords so easily that they are easy to die." The third is that Vietnam already had a considerable scale of agriculture and handicraft industry in the middle of the Spring and Autumn Period.

The peak of the development of Vietnam was in the middle and late period of the Spring and Autumn Period. When Yun Chang and Gou Jian ruled Yue, the power of Yue had developed rapidly. The territory is hundreds of miles long, and in the south, it is only second to Chu and Wu. With the development of Vietnam's national strength, Yun Chang and Gou Jian also developed the mind of beating the Central Plains . However, to go northward, the Yue country had to step over the Wu country . At that time, the Wu Kingdom was much more powerful than the Yue Kingdom. The Yue Kingdom was fighting for the Central Plains, and it was bound to conflict with Wu Kingdom.

The contradiction between the Yue and Wu kingdoms became more and more complicated with the dispute between Jin and Chu. The two great powers, Jin and Chu, were almost evenly matched. Therefore, the Jin State adopted the strategy of linking the Wu system with the Chu system to draw in and help Wu Kingdom harass and invade the Chu country from the side and rear, leaving the Chu country in a two-line battle situation. The Chu State, using the contradiction between the Yue State and the Wu State, began to support the cultivation of the Yue State and threatened the Wu State with the Vietnam State to alleviate its pressure. In this way, Jin, Chu, Wu, and Yue each made their own interests and made the situation more and more chaotic. The merger war between Wu and Yue became the all-round war that dominated the world strategy after the battle of Bai Ju .

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The earliest conflict between Wu Yue was at the time of Wu Wang Yu Ji. Wu Wang Yu Ji was very angry because Yue Guo helped Chu Guo to cut Wu, so he sent troops to attack Yue Guo, preparing to relieve his worries. The strength of Vietnam is not as good as that of Wu. A large number of Vietnamese are captured and a large amount of finance is plundered by Wu Jun. However, Wu Jun often tortured his captives, severed his hamstrings, and let them guard Wu Jun's ships on the river. The prisoners of war waited to assassinate Wu Wangyu's sacrifice, and then Wu Jun launched revenge, killing a large number of Vietnamese prisoners, and the hatred between Wu Guo and Yue Guo became deeper. After that, the fighting between Wu Guo and Yue Guo became more and more frequent. Yue Guo often helped Chu Guo to restrain Wu Guo and become Wu Guo's elbow and armpit.

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In 510 BC, in order to break through, Wu Wangzhang decided to preemptively attack the country. He entered the country of Vietnam smoothly and defeated the Vietnamese army, which caused the Vietnam country to be severely damaged, and also deepened the hatred between the two countries. In 505 BC, the king of Yue Yunchang took advantage of Wu's attack on Chu to lead his troops to attack Wu, all the way to the capital of Wu. He had to send troops to rescue him before driving the Vietnamese army out of Wu.

We can see that the strength of Yue and Wu at that time was very weak. Vietnam is not enough to pose too much threat to Wu. However, strategically, Vietnam has great pressure on Wu. Bian and Sun Wu also attached great importance to Vietnam and focused on the defense of Vietnam. This also shows that the rise of Vietnam has made Wu Guo feel heavy pressure, and it also shows that Vietnam is also a strong enemy on Wu's hegemony.

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Wu Guo and Yue Guo's grievances entangled, what is the truth?

In the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods more than 2,000 years ago, since the decline of the Zhou royal family, chaos has continued, and people's livelihood has been difficult, but the so-called current situation creates heroes, and such chaotic scenes have also seen countless big men.

It is said that during the Spring and Autumn Period, the last hegemony was to destroy Wu Yue ’s Yue Kingdom after lying down and trying it out, but the Yue Kingdom ’s Lord Gou Jian practiced in order to be able to revenge and snow hate . A great cause.

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Speaking of the story of Wu Guo and Yue Guo, the grievances are really entangled. At first Wu Guo took advantage of the death of the monarch Yue, and took advantage of the opportunity to wage war. He was defeated by the upper-level Gou Jian, and also killed Fucha 's father, Wu Guo's former monarch. After the ascension of Fucha, he reminded himself that he could not forget to avenge his father, and even let the soldiers who kept the gate of the palace shout revenge after seeing him every day. I have to say that these two people are heroes with a firm mind. If we also have this quality, we won't worry about achieving a great career.

As a result, Fucha was really defeated by Yuechao. He also captured Goujin to the capital and asked him to feed Marama to himself and insulted him. Everyone knows the later stories, and I believe that people who know this history will admire them both, but they should also remember their lessons. Even if you win for a while, you ca n’t be proud and complacent. Once you lose your normal and aggressive spirit, it is a very dangerous thing. The thing about King Wu and Yue is the clearest example.

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In other words, after revenge and revenge, Yue Guo annexed Wu Guo and became a generation of hegemons at that time, but none of us seems to know this history. It seems that the Spring and Autumn Period, the Five Hegemons, and the Warring States Qixiong did not have the presence of Yue Guo. In fact, there is another way of saying about the Five Hegemons, which includes the monarchs of Wu Guo and Yue Guo at that time, but they have a relatively short history, so they are not counted. At this time, we cannot stop mentioning that we must never be proud and complacent at any time. After the husband, the Yue State did not become stronger and was defeated and annexed by the Chu State . His sons were not convinced by each other and all became independent kings. Vietnam also completely lost the possibility of growing into a great country again.

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Some people say that they can always hit themselves, and they are their greatest enemy. This sentence is most obvious in these two countries. It was said that Fucha ’s father, if he could prepare well at that time and collect more information before the war began, maybe the end would be different. After revenge, Fucha was obviously slack, and the former spirit was gone. As a result It was defeated by the Yue State, and the Yue State did not have a good ending. At least the education of the children and grandchildren was not done well. Under the influence of external forces, they disintegrated. I have to say that it is good to look at history more, it just needs to be used.

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Gou Jian served as a slave in Wu Guo for three years. How did he make the Yue Guo Da comeback?

History has developed to the end of the Spring and Autumn Period. The most exciting Wu Yue battle for hegemony . During the Wu Wangzhang era, Wu Wuxu and Sun Wu worked hard to break through the capital of Chu and forced Chu to relocate the capital to avoid war and become a true military power. In the peak period of Wu Kingdom, the Yue Kingdom countered it. Although Yue Wang Yunchang also attacked Wu Kingdom when Wu Kingdom was empty, in history, the more famous is Yue Wang Yunchang's son Yue Wang Gou Jian , and Gou Jian The story of a reckless taste . Among them, Gou Jian had been a slave in Wu Guo for three years before lying on his stomach. Many kings in the Spring and Autumn Period have been removed from power because of moral loss or other reasons. However, Gou Jian is already a slave. Why can the Yue Kingdom remain? What is the reason that Gou Jian can be restored again?

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The first thing to say is the language and Fan Ye. The resurrection of Yue Wang Gou Jian relies on the strategies and loyalty of Wen Gen and Fan Ye. This is part of the reason, that is, not giving up. 后 After the battle of Li, the husband Wu's country actively prepared for war, hoping to get revenge, and after learning about the action of husband, he took the first step, but things did not go as expected. In the end, only 5,000 soldiers remained trapped in Hueiji. Gou Jian thought about giving up, and thought of suicide, but they were all stopped by the language. At this time, the language played a very important role in setting the mind. Persuading Gou Jian to save his life first, and then look for opportunities, this is the first role played by the language. Later, Gou Jian became a slave in Wu Kingdom, and the language has been defending the Yue country, managing the Yue country, bribing Bo Xi by means, and winning opportunities for Gou Jian's return. This is the role of the language. Fan Ye's role is to stay with Gou Jian at all times, to develop ideas for Gou Jian, how to get through the difficulties. Gou Jian had been a slave for three years, and Fan Ye was also a slave for three years. The husband had wanted to liberate Fan Ye and make Fan Ye the guest of the husband. Fan Ye refused. This was loyalty to Gou Jian. At the same time, only Fan Ye is suffering with Gou Jian, and he always maintains the courtesy and courtesy of Gou Jian. This is the role of Fan Ye.

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In fact, there is another reason, that is, the Vietnamese people ’s extreme recognition of Gou Jian, and this is also very important. During the Spring and Autumn Period, Jin, Chu, and other vassal states had basically had their monarchs abolished, killed, and exiled, and many of these monarchs were not necessarily bad morals. And the people of the Yue Kingdom, even when Gou Jian was already a slave, could still recognize Gou Jian as the king. This is a very important reason for Gou Jian to be able to recover again. Of course, there is also a point that after Wu Guo defeated Yue Guo, the population of Yue Guo was already small, and it was no longer possible to organize effective military forces. Therefore, there is really no way for Vietnamese people to become others under their own king. When the slaves saved their effective strength, and then tried to get revenge, otherwise, it would really be an extinction.

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After a few years as a slave, Gou Jian ushered in a turn of life and finally returned to Vietnam again. Only through a series of self-cultivation and restorative measures, as well as various cultural policies for governing the country, has the national power been slowly restored. Of course, it is not simply said that the restoration was restored, which also includes the beauty plan of Xi Shi , also includes the measures of removing Wu Zixu's divorce, and continuing to bribe the uncle, and so on. The opportunity of the country realized the super turnover of the country of Wu to the country of Wu, and Gou Jian became the final winner.

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Conclusion

Twenty-five years before Qin Shihuang (222 years ago), Qin Jun surrendered to Yuejun and set up Huiji County. At the time of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, Dongbei and the rest of Minyue belonged to the Han Dynasty and moved to Jianghuai.

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