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List of Emperors of the Yuan Dynasty

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The Yuan Dynasty (1206 ~ 1368) was the first unified feudal dynasty established by ethnic minorities in Chinese history. In the twenty-fourth history of China and the emperor temples of all dynasties, Genghis Khan was established in 1206 as the Mongolian Khanate, and until the emperor Yuanshun fled in 1368, most of them belonged to the Yuan Dynasty. The emperor of the Yuan dynasty refers to the 15 emperors (including the Torrein State), starting from Yuan Taizu Tiemuzhen until the Yuanshun emperor. In 1206, Temujin established the Mongolian Khanate. In 1260 Kublai Khan ascended the throne and established the "centralism" of the Yuan Dynasty. In 1271 Kublai Khan took the meaning of the "Book of Changes" in the Book of Changes and renamed the country Yuan. In 1279, he destroyed the Southern Song Dynasty and unified China. The territory of the Yuan Dynasty was unprecedentedly vast. From the North Sea to the North Sea and the East Japan Sea, Tibet and Taiwan were included in the territory of China for the first time. The Yuan Dynasty was a Mongol dynasty, with a vast territory, but due to the brutal rule, it eventually caused the dynasty to die short. Interesting history will give you a one-on-one review of the emperors of the Yuan Dynasty and provide detailed information about the emperors of the Yuan Dynasty.

List of Emperors of the Yuan Dynasty

List of Emperors of the Yuan Dynasty-Beginning with Yuan Taizu Tiemuzhen, and finally Yuan Shun Emperor.

Yuan Taizu Tiemuzhen introduced Genghis Khan to establish the Mongolian Khanate?

Brief introduction of Genghis Khan : 孛 er only Jinjin Tiemuzhen (1161-227), the Mongolian Empire Khan, the title "Genghis Khan". Outstanding politician and military strategist in world history. In the spring of 1206, he was named emperor. Since then, he has repeatedly launched wars on foreign conquests, conquering the Black Sea beaches in West Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe. In October 1265 (to the second year of Yuan), Kublai Khan , the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty, pursued the title of Genghis Khan Temple. In October 1266 (to the third year of Yuan Dynasty ), the Taimiao was completed, and the Zhuang Temple was made. In 1271 (to the eighth year of Yuan), Kublai Khan changed the country name "Great Mongolia" to "Dai Yuan". In December 1309 (until the second year of the sophomore year), Yuan Wuzong's seamounts were enshrined , and the temple was named Taizu. From then on, Genghis Khan's nickname became Emperor Wuqi of Fatian Qiyun.

Genghis Khan

Unification of Mongolian Ministries in 1206

Yehuling defeated Jin's main army in World War I in 1211 [less than more]

Capture the capital of Jinzhong in 1215 AD

Destroy Xiliao in 1218 AD

Sweeping Central Asia

Zhebei and Sutaitai led military expeditions to the mountains of the Caucasus and the countries of the Chincha steppe on the northern shore of the Black Sea

Destroy Xixia in 1227

Life of Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan was an outstanding military strategist and politician in Mongolia. After unifying the Mongols, he was promoted to profusely in 1206 and established the Mongolian Khanate. After he took office, he launched large-scale military activities, and the territory expanded to Central Asia and southern Russia. In 1226, he led his troops south to attack Xixia, and died of illness in Xixia the following year. In October of the second year (1265), the ancestor Kublai Khan honoured the title of Genghis Khan Temple, and in October of the third year (1266), the Taimiao was completed and the god temple was established. Emperor Shengwu. In the eighth year of Yuan (1271), Kublai Khan changed his country name to "Dai Yuan". In December of the second year of the sophomore year (1309), Yuanwuzong Haishan and Zunxun Fatian Qiyun, the temple numbered Taizu. From then on, Genghis Khan's nickname became Emperor Wuqi of Fatian Qiyun.

Genghis Khan is a legendary historical figure, so his mausoleum is also very attractive to tourists. Chen Yunhe's poem "One Generation Tianjiao" is written for Genghis Khan's Mausoleum: "One generation Tianjiao sleeps with Mao Zedong's poems and even sleeps here, even after entering the reform and opening up, I still don't know the history of a thousand years. The tribe's iron rider thundered and thundered past a dynasty that quickly rose and quickly decayed. " Not only created the largest Mongol empire in history, but also left countless mysteries to future generations. In particular, the burial place of Genghis Khan is a mystery. People have searched for nothing for hundreds of years. Recently, an explosive news appeared in the domestic media: the joint archeological team of Japan and Mongolia announced the discovery of Genghis Khan's cemetery near the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar. After the news was published, relevant experts and scholars expressed doubts about the reliability of the news.

Festival

The sacrifice of Genghis Khan Mausoleum is the most solemn and solemn sacrifice activity of the Mongolian nation, which is referred to as the sacrifice of Chengcheng Mausoleum. The custom of sacrificing Genghis Khan to Mongolia began as early as the Wokuotai period, and the decree was officially issued in the Kublai Khan period, stipulating that various sacrifices for the ancestors of Genghis Khan were made perfect. The Genghis Khan Festival in Ijinholo, Ordos today is a ritual following ancient legends. Genghis Khan sacrifices are usually divided into weekday, moon and season festivals, all with fixed dates. Special ceremonies are held more than 60 times a year. The offerings are complete, all for sheep, holy wine and various dairy products, and a grand ceremony is held. The spring festival is held on March 21st each year, and the sacrifice is the largest and most solemn. The flags of all the alliances sent representatives to Ikinholo's Mausoleum.

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Brief introduction of Yuan Ruizong towed mines

Xie Er only weighed Tiao Lei (1193 ~ 1232), Yuan Taizu ’s fourth son (young son) of Genghis Khan , and his honorary name was “Ke Na Na” (the official). Genghis Khan sealed off the sons before his death, dragging mines to stay with his parents, inheriting his father's puppets, pastures, and the army in martyrdom and greenness. Genghis Khan left an army of about 129,000, most of which were inherited by tow mines. After Genghis Khan's death in 1227, his second son, Jiuer, only succeeded Wo Kuotai, dragging mines to prison. In 1232 he led the army to defeat the Golden Army and died on the way back to the army. His son Jiuer only took the monk to catch up with the honorary title, " Emperor Yingwu", and the temple name "Rui Zong". In the second year of the Yuan Dynasty (AD 1265), when the son of King Kublai Khan was reigned, he was converted into Emperor Jingxiang. In the second year of his sophomore year (1309 AD), he added "Emperor Jingsheng Xiang".

basic introduction

Genghis Khan's first wife and son-in-law had four sons: the eldest son Shu Chi, the second son Chahetai, the third son Wokuotai, and the youngest son towed.

In 1213 AD, the tow mines occupied the Dexing Mansion of Jin Guo (now Zhuolu County, Hebei Province), and later he seized King Xiong, Ba, Mo, Hejian and other Hebei and counties in Shandong and his county.

During the Western Expedition in 1219 AD, Talley and his father Genghis Khan led the main force across the desert, tending to spend no time. The father and son led the Mongolian army from the black sandstone and crossed the Tiemenguan Pass (now the Buzgal Pass in Baisong Mountain, 90 km south of Uzbek Shahr Shabz) to the south. Genghis Khan selected the mighty from the army to form an elite army, led by the tow mines, first crossed the Amu River to take the Khorasan cities. Later, Genghis Khan entered the Talihan village (now north of the upper reaches of the Murgab River in Afghanistan). Talihan soldiers and civilians defended against danger. The Mongolian army besieged for 7 months. The mountain city was not captured until the mines were called back to join their father. The city's garrisons and people were all slaughtered. Soon afterwards, Toray was ordered by his father to enter the Khorasan region, and he made brutal revenge on cities that dared to resist Mongolia. On one occasion, a small Mongolian army was annihilated under the city of Maru. In March 1221, the mine dragged up 70,000 soldiers to besiege Maru. The Maru chief surrendered from the city. After entering the city, only 400 artisans were selected and all residents and descendants were slaughtered. The dead amounted to 700,000 people, and Maru City was razed to the ground.

In May 1221, a torpedo attacked you again. The dean and gentleman in the city were sent out of the city to drop off. The towline was not allowed. They ordered an artillery and a stone thrower to attack, and rushed into the city. In addition, Tusi, Naissa (now Ashgabat East, Turkmenistan), and Zhi Fei's cities were all raged by blasts of fire. Due to the high heat of the summer, the tow army was recalled by Genghis Khan to Talihan. On the way back, the tow army attacked Yeli (now Herat, Afghanistan), and the army and civilians resisted in Yeli city. After 8 days, the defending officer was killed. The tow mine allowed the residents in the city to surrender, exempting the city from slaughter, but all the 12,000 soldiers in Zarandin Killed.

In 1219 AD, after the torpedoes took part in the Western Expedition, according to Mongolian customs, before the younger son went out, Madame Hulan of Genghis Khan was on the line. She said to Genghis Khan: "Of the princes, there are four sister-in-laws. Who should be ruled after the Lord returns to the West?" Genghis Khan thought it sounded right after he heard it. He called on the brothers and sons and agreed that Wo Kuotai would be the future Heir to the Khan. In 1227, before dying, Genghis Khan summoned the sons again, asking them to obey the leadership of Wo Kuotai, and the brothers to be sincere and united. Soon, Genghis Khan died of illness. According to the feudal monarchy, he should be appointed by his heirs immediately, but Mongolia ’s Kurile system (tribal council system) is still working. To succeed, he must wait for the final decision of Kuriltai. In the meantime, the throne was vacant for two years.

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Yuan Taizong Wo Kuotai Introduction to the Second Khan in the History of the Yuan Dynasty

Xuan Erjinjin Wokuotai (1186-1211), the Mongolian Empire Khan, known as "Wokuotai Khan" in history. Yuan Taizu's third son of Genghis Khan . In 1225, it was sealed in the upper reaches of the Shihe River (now Erzis River) in Ye'er and east of Lake Balkhash, and it was built in Yumi City (now Emin County, Xinjiang). In 1229, the Hulitai Conference was embraced and ascended the throne, managing the entire Mongol Empire. He continued his father's will to expand the territory, went south to exterminate the Jin Dynasty, and dispatched all expeditions to Europe. During his reign, he successfully conquered Central Asia, North China, and Eastern Europe. By October of the third year (1266), the Tai Temple was completed and the lordship was honored Temple number, Yuan ancestor Kublai Khan honoured the Wokuotai temple number Taizong, and the English emperor . In November of the eighth year of the Yuan Dynasty (1271), Kublai Khan changed his country name "Great Mongolia" to "Dayuan".

Introduction

She Erjin only wokuotai (December 11, 1186-1241), and also translated the ancient moon, Yueketai, Yuekuo, and Songge. Yuan Taizu ’s Genghis Khan only had a catty · Tiemuzhen's third son, and his mother-in-law posted a queen. Mongolia was sweating and reigned from September 13, 1229 to December 11, 1241. The temple number is Taizong, the English number is Emperor, and the honorary number is also strong. In his early years, he conquered the Mobe tribes with his father and participated in the Western Expedition, the Gold Attack, and the Summer War. On September 13, 1229, after the election of Hulitai, that was the sweating position. Later, the establishment of Chaoyi, the granting of Zhasa (decree), the setting up of a post station, the establishment of a warehouse, the setting of quotas, the state system became more and more perfect. The following year, following Yelu Chucai 's suggestion, a ten-way tax collection levy was set up in the Han Dynasty, and a taxation system was implemented. For three years, he and his son Tenglei led a large-scale attack on the army. For four years, the main force of the Mongolian Army to annihilate the Jin Army was at Sanfeng Mountain in Junzhou (now Yuxian, Henan), and entered the Jingjing area (now Kaifeng, Henan). Six years (1234), perished the Jin Dynasty. Seven years, Jianhe Forest City. Later, he dispatched the kings and princes to conquer the west, and attacked the Southern Song Dynasty and Korea. Eight years, printing and payment. The Central Plains households were given to the kings and relatives, and the five-family silk system was implemented. Daluhuachi and officials were used to manage the military and civilian finances to explore the Machi army. In his later years, the returning businessperson Audu, a gangman, and Ya Lao Wachi, were in charge of the civil administration of the Han Dynasty, and his rule became chaotic.

Life

In 1225, Genghis Khan, the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty, was sealed in the upper reaches of the Shihe River (now Erzis River) in Ye'er and east of Lake Balkhash, and Erduo Yuli City (now Emin County, Xinjiang) was built.

On September 13, 1229 (August 24, 1229), he was ascended to the throne under the support of King Teng, Chahetai, and Tiemuge Chijin.

In 1230, the Jin Dynasty was pro-cut. In 1231, the Guanshan Conference (now Ninety-nine Springs in Inner Mongolia) was held and it was decided that the soldiers would be divided into three ways to attack the gold. Occupied southern Shaanxi, northern Henan and Huaixi within three years. In 1234, he joined the Southern Song Dynasty to attack Caizhou. On February 9, 1234, Jin Aizong proclaimed himself and the Jin Dynasty perished. But at the same time, because of its borders with the Southern Song Dynasty, the conflict between the two sides has intensified, which has also opened the prelude to continuous fighting between the two sides for the next 45 years. When the southern front was deadlocked, the iron hoofs of the Mongolian army turned to Korea in the east, and they surrendered. On the western front, the Mongolian army completely controlled Persia and continued westward, occupying the Ross nations except Novgorod. The whole country, and the whole territory of Poland and Hungary.

On December 11, 1241 (the eighth day of November, 1241 on the lunar calendar), Wo Kuotai was suddenly violently violent due to alcoholism, which forced him to stop his expedition. At that time, the army was advancing towards Vienna, but it was rushed to withdraw to participate in the Kuriltai conference in Mongolia. Since then, the Mongolian army has never set foot on this land.

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Yuan Dingzong Gui conquered the emperor Jin Dynasty, the western emperor

Yuan Dingzong's uncle was just Jin Guiyou (April 1206-1248), the Mongolian empire Khan, known in history as "Gui Youhan". Yuan Taizong's son was only the eldest son of Wokuotai. Born in the first year of Genghis Khan of Yuan Taizu (1206), he died in the third year of Yuan Dingzong Guiyu (1248), and reigned from August 24, 1246 to April 1248. At the age of 43, the mother queen was Ma Zhen. He participated in the conquest of the Jin Dynasty in his early years and captured his prince. Once again went to Europe with Batu. He ascended the throne in 1246, and in 1247 Tubo became attached to the Mongolian Empire. By October of the third year of the Yuan Dynasty (1266), the Taimiao was completed and the Zhuang Temple was revered. The ancestor Kublai Khan was honored by the temple as Dingzong, and the monarch Jianping was Emperor Jianping. In November of the eighth year of the Yuan Dynasty (1271), Kublai Khan changed his country name "Great Mongolia" to "Dayuan".

Life experience

Early experiences

Guier Youjin, Guiyou, ascended to the throne on August 24, 1246 (July 12, 1246), died at the age of 41, and died in April 1248 (March 1248). Although the time was short, he was resolute and decisive in his work. First, he killed the wizard from the Western Regions. Because he was fighting against manpower, he used the power of his master, that is, your mother, Queen Noma, to frame loyalty. The first decision after that was to get rid of a hundred homicides, and to reuse the administration of Zhenhai, a former minister of the North Korean government, according to the missionaries from Britain and Italy. Gui Youhan was serious and unsmiling. In addition, Gui Yuhan re-announced the Western Expedition, determined to reproduce the grandeur of his father and ancestors, and sent troops to conquer Tubo.

Guiyou was with the kings of the Jin Dynasty. Also in the West Expedition. When Taizong died, the Emperor Sun lost the martyrs door as a cricket, and his mother, Ma Zhen, disobeyed. He was called to be controlled by He Lin, and the history was called "Naima Zhen". In July 1246, the kings of Na Mazhen rallied, and Fenggui was sweating profusely. Guiyou was 41 years old when he ascended the throne, but his regime was still governed by his mother Na Zhen and Zhongshu Youjinxiang Zhenhai, and the order was chaotic. In 1235, Wo Kuotai decided to conquer the Qincha Khanate, Russia and other unserved nations, and the second son of the Red Army was ordered to conduct an expedition. At the same time, Guiyou and his cousin Mengge used soldiers in the Caucasus Mountains, and their record was outstanding. At the end of 1241, Wo Kuotai died before his illness and was returned to Mongolia by the class teacher. Gui You was on his way and died. Wokuotai's grandson, Wujietai (a younger son of Wokuotai), was incapable of managing state affairs because of his young age, so Na Zhenzheng himself claimed the system in the spring of 1242 AD.

Nomazhen system

There are reasons why Naima Zhen's called system. The relationship between Wo Kuotai and his eldest son Guiyou was not very harmonious before his death, so he did not want to let Guiyou follow his position. The most beloved of Wo Kuotai is Gui You's three younger brothers, and let him succeed. However, Kuo Chu died in the invasion of the Song Army in 1236 AD, and Wo Kuotai was so distressed that he wanted Kuo Chu's eldest son to die as his heir. As soon as Wo Kuotai died, Na Mazhen's Treegona defended Guiyou and decided to wait for Guiyou to return to his position. At this point, Genghis Khan's younger brother, Chi Chijin, wanted to win the sweat position, and led his troops to the capital. Naima Zhenshi immediately sent his envoy to ask him, and he had to lead his troops back to the station. According to Mongolian customs, the successor of the Khan position will also be decided by the election of Kulertai (Kings of the Kings). Naima Zhenshi summoned the kings and generals to the capital city and Lin to participate in the selection of new Khan by Kuletai. At that time, among the kings and relatives, the commander of the Western Expeditionary Forces, Batu, had the highest prestige, but he was not in harmony with Guiyou, so he opposed Guiyou to serve as a sweat, he used the disease to make excuses, and refused to attend the meeting, which led to Huletai. It could not be held as scheduled, so it had to be regented by Nai Ma Zhen. It was not until the fall of 1246 that Batu sent his younger brother, Bel, to attend the Kulertai Assembly on his behalf. Because of the efforts of Na Ma Zhenshi, the conference reached an agreement, recommending noble reasons for the new sweat.

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Yuan Xianzong's introduction to the only emperor who died in battle in Chinese history

Yuanxianzong's son-in-law was only Mengge (January 10, 1209—August 11, 1259), the Mongolian Empire Khan, known as "Menge Khan" in history. Reigned from July 1, 1251 to August 11, 1259. It is the grandson of Genghis Khan , the eldest son of Toray, and his fourth brother, Kublai Khan , the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty . Mother Lulu Tiney. Before his ascension, he had participated in the Western Expedition of the eldest son of Captain Batu, and captured the leader of Chichiba, Barbara, and attacked Russia and other places. After the throne, he devoted himself to attacking the Southern Song Dynasty and Dali. And dispatch Xulie Wuxi to explore the West Asian countries. He died in 1259 under the Diaoyu Mountain in eastern Hechuan. To the third year of Yuan Dynasty (1266), the Taimiao was completed and the Zhuang Temple was revered. The Yuan Dynasty ancestor Kublai Khan honoured the mongolia Temple as Xianzong and the Kuang Su Emperor . By November of the eighth year of the Yuan Dynasty (1271), Kublai Khan changed his country name "Great Mongolia" to "Dayuan".

Life experience

Early life

Yuan Taizu was born on the 3rd of December (January 10, 1209). Mengge was born in Mobei grassland. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan, the eldest son of Toray, and his wife, Lulutheni, was his wife. His eldest son (Ku Bilie, the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty, is the second son, Xu Liewu is the third son, and Ali Bu is the fourth son). "Mongo" means permanent. Before Yuan Taizong wo Kuotai was enthroned, he adopted Mengge as the adoptive son, so that Emperor Ang Hui nurtured Mengge. After he grew up, he married the woman in the Hulubei family and became a concubine, and distributed it to his people. Four years (1232) of Yuan Taizong died after the tow mine in September in the lunar calendar, so he returned to inherit the tow land of the tow mine. Mengge has followed Wo Kuotai to participate in the expedition many times, and he has made great achievements. Mengge is quiet, not extravagant, and likes hunting. In the seventh year of the reign of Emperor Taizong (1235), Mongolia took part in the second Mongolian expedition, and participated in various battles with Batu, Guiyou, and Western Europe such as Brear, Qincha, and Luosi. , Catching Chicha leader Bo Chiman.

Win the throne

After the death of Yuan Dingzong Guiyou in March of the lunar calendar in 1248, the emperor Wu Lihai lost the title of Lin Dynasty. Due to the disagreement between Guiyou and Badu in their early years, Badu refused to go to the funeral. In order to fight against the Wokuotai family, Badu sent the envoy to invite King Zong and his minister to his resident in the grasslands of Central Asia to hold Hulitai and discuss the recommendation of a new sweat. Most of the kings of the Wokuo and Chagatai lines refused to go, and the Queen was lost by the Emperor Wu Lihai, and only the Minister Yaba was sent to the meeting. Helu Heteni ordered the eldest son Mengge to lead his brothers and family members to call.

In 1250, the Hulitai Conference was held at the Batu station in Central Asia. At the meeting, Batu highly praised Mengge for his outstanding ability and the great achievements of the Western Expedition. He should take the throne, and pointed out that Guili's standing violated Wokuotai's legacy. Life (Wo Kuotai was killed as a result of losing the martyr's door), posterity of Wo Kuotai is not qualified to inherit the sweat position. The conference approved Batu's proposal and recommended Mongolia as a sweat. Wokuotai and Chahetai did not recognize the two, and Lulu Tieni and Mengge sent envoys to invite the kings of the ancestors to hold Hulitai on the riverside of Martyrdom, and Batu sent his brother Beerge to lead the army to accompany Mongolia. Brother went to the river of martyrdom, but many kings of Wo Kuotai and Chahetai still refused to answer the call, and the conference was delayed for a long time.

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Kublai Khan the founder of the Yuan Dynasty

Xie Erjin Jin Kubilie (1215-1294), Mongolian, founder of the Yuan Dynasty . He is the fourth son of Jian Guo Torre, brother of Yuan Xianzong. The Mongolian moniker "Xue Chanhan", in his youth, "thinking about the big things in the world." Ku Erlie and Kublai Khan established a vast unified multi-ethnic country in the Yuan Dynasty. During his reign, he established a provincial system, strengthened centralization, and gradually restored and developed the social economy. He also sent troops to invade neighboring countries on many occasions, but many failed. Like his grandfather Genghis Khan , Kublai Khan was the founder of the glorious history of the Mongolian nation and an outstanding politician and military strategist of the Mongolian nation. 35 years of his reign, the first month of 1294, died in most cities.

Yuan Shizu Kubilie (1215 ~ 1294), the founder of the Yuan Dynasty. The second son of Toray 's wife, Lu Hetenni. When Kublai Khan was the prince, he was enthusiastic about learning Chinese culture. In 1251, eldest brother Mengge was sweating a lot, and Kublai Khan, as the emperor's brother, was served as the prime minister of the Monan Handi army and the South stationed in the region of Hudu. He successively served as the Han Confucian rectifier and ruled the officials of Xingzhou, set up a strategic division in Yuliang, rectified the military and political affairs in Henan, and set up Tang and Deng fields, and received positive results. In 1253, under the cover of Jingzhao (now Xi'an, Shaanxi), Kublai Khan served as Confucian scholars to set up farmland, revive civil administration, restore agriculture, establish schools, and further gain the support of the northern Han landlord class for him. The establishment of the dynasty provided the social foundation.

In the same year, Kublai Khan was ordered to join the general Wu Liang in an expedition to Yunnan and destroy Dali. In 1258, Mengge set up a division in the Southern Song Dynasty , and instructed Kublai Khan to replace the General East Army. In September 1259, Kublai Khan led his division to the Huai River, and the news of Mongolia's death on the front line in Hezhou came. Kublai Khan still waved his troops from Yangluobao to cross the Yangtze River, surrounded Ezhou (now Wuhan, Hubei), and responded with an army Wulianghe Taiwan Army from north Yunnan. At this time, it was learned that the younger brother, Ali Bu, who stayed in Mobei, recruited soldiers without permission to seek a sweat position. Kublai Khan immediately adopted the offer of Han Hao Jing, and made peace with Song, and returned to Yanjing by light riding.

In March 1260, Kublai Khan was pushed by some kings, that is, Khan was located in Kaiping and built in the Yuan Dynasty. In the central province of Zhongshu, Wang Wentong served as Pingzhang's political affairs, and 10 branches of Xuanfu Division were set up in various places to serve as Han Confucians. In May of the same year, Ali Bu Ge was also embraced by some kings who stayed in Mobei, saying that he sweated heavily in Helin. Relying on the rich human and material resources of the Han Dynasty, Kublai Khan sent troops to defeat Ali Bu. While fighting with Ali Bu Ge, in the spring of Zhongtong three years (1262), Li Duxing rebelled in Yiduxing and was quickly suppressed by Kublai Khan. Li's rebellion caused Kublai Khan's suspicion of the Han people, so he took a series of measures, such as abolishing the hereditary system of the Han vassals, weakening the military power of these families, and implementing the division of military and civilians at the local level. On the other hand, we can strictly guard against Han people. In addition, Semu people have been cited in various levels of power to separate powers, and to restrain each other with the Han bureaucrats. In August of the 5th year of Centralization, Kublai Khan changed his Yuan to Zhiyuan. After the increase and change of profits and losses from the first year of the Central Government to the beginning of the first year, various systems of the new dynasty were generally established.

To the eighth year of Yuan (1271), the meaning of "Da Qian Qian Yuan" in the Book of Changes was adopted, and the founding name was Da Yuan.

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Yuan Chengzong's Tie Muer Introduction to the Second Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty

Xie Erjin Tiemuer (October 15, 1265-February 10, 1307), the Mongolian Empire Khan, the second emperor of the Yuan Dynasty . The ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty , Kublai Khan , the prince's son of true gold. After the death of his father, he was the emperor's grandson in the 30th year of the Yuan Dynasty (1293), and the chief soldier guarded Mobei. The following year, the emperor. Stop foreign wars and concentrate on rectifying domestic military and political affairs. Measures such as restricting the powers of the kings, reducing or exempting some taxes, and introducing new laws and regulations have temporarily eased social conflicts . At the same time, sending troops to defeat Northwest rebels Haidu, Duwa, etc. Duwa and Chabaer returned, which changed the long-term turmoil in the Northwest. During the reign, the situation was basically maintained, but the rewards were increased, the income was not enough, the treasury was scarce, and the currency was devalued. The temple name is Chengzong, and the emperor name is Qinming Emperor Guangxiao. Mongolia Khan Wanze Dudu Khan.

Biography

Xie Er was only Tiemuer (1265--1307), the second emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. Mongolian is called Öljeitü-qahan. The second son of Yuan Shizu, Kubilie, is the third son of Zhenjin, and his mother, Hongji, and Bo Lan, is also scared, also known as Kuo Kuozhen. Born to the second year of Yuan (1265). For ten years, Kublai Khan made true gold the crown prince, and after 22 years of death, Kublai Khan has not identified his successor. To the end of the Yuan Dynasty, Tie Muer was ordered to be Ping Nai Yan Yu Dang He Dan. For thirty years, Tongjun guarded Mobei and received the crown prince. On the first month of the thirty-first year, Kublai Khan died. In April, the monarchs and nobles of Mongolia held the election of Emperor Hulitai in Shangdu. At the meeting, Tie Muer and his eldest brother Jin Wang Gan Mazhen competed fiercely to inherit the throne. Thanks to the support of his mother, Kuokuo, Kezhen and Quanyan Boyan, Yuxi Timur, etc., Tiemuer succeeded the emperor. Jianyuan Yuanzhen (1295 ~ 1296), later changed to Dade (1297 ~ 1307). In the light of Kublai Khan ’s late life, he favored Sang Ge and sent troops overseas. He honored the old Han Chinese and restricted the illegal activities cast by the kings. He also invaded Japan and invaded Annan, reduced some taxes in the Jiangnan region, and ordered the editors to organize them. Decree. These measures have temporarily eased social conflicts. As a result, he basically maintained a conserved position in his early term.

However, in order to reward the kings and relatives who supported him, the excessive rewards quickly led to the exhaustion of the state treasury, "stored in and dispersed", and "the number of years of income, not half a year old", and can only rely on embezzlement. The notes were originally maintained, resulting in a rapid depreciation of the notes. In terms of employment, he still has a group of color bureaucrats such as Boyan (Saidian Chisun) and Ali. Later in his reign, due to successive years of illness, these embarrassed bureaucrats colluded with Queen Brugham inside and outside to confuse the government and chaos, and corruption in the officialdom flourished. In order to be able to build meritorious service and increase prestige, Tiemuer sent troops to condemn eight hundred daughter-in-laws (now in northern Thailand and other places), disturbing the southwest and causing uprisings of all ethnic groups in Yunnan and Guizhou. These measures have led to the emptiness of national power and the darkening of politics. However, when he was in office, the Yuan Army successfully defeated the invasion of Haidu and Tuowa, forcing the rulers of the two Ruths of Chagatai and Wokuotai to reconcile and revive the sweat in the Western Khan States. The supremacy of the monarch basically ended the royal struggle in the west for more than 40 years. In the first month of the 11th year of Dade, Tiemuer died of illness. Fourteen years in office. The temple number is sect.

Evaluation

The evaluation of the Song Dynasty and other officials of the Ming Dynasty ’s revision history “Yuanshi” commented: “After Chengzong inherited the world, he was ruled and ruled. Alas, the outside is entrusted to Zaichen; but if it is not to be abolished, the deceased ancestor is not far away, and the constitution is still in place. "

The evaluation of the Song Dynasty and other officials in the revision history of the Ming Dynasty "Yuanshi" is: "The rule of Yuan is called Yuan and Dade as the head of the world.......... Yu Zhiyuan. "

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Yuan Wuzong Haishan introduced the third-generation emperor of the Yuan Dynasty

The Emperor Wuzong of the Emperor Wuzong only weighed in Haishan (August 4, 1281-January 27, 1311), the third emperor of the Yuan Dynasty , the Mongolian Empire Khan, and the "Khan Khan". For the eldest son of Kublai Khan, the second son of Jin Jin, he was the eldest son of Ma Baba, who commanded the north of the army. In the eleventh year (1307), Cheng Tiemuer died of illness, and his storage was vacant. Haishan returned to most of the cities to be mourned, was embraced as emperor, and pursued his father as Yuan Shunzong. After the throne was replaced, the Minister of Sejong was replaced, and his younger brother Ai Yuli was drawn as the Crown Prince. Yuan Wuzong reigned for four years (1307-1311). During this period, the contradictions within China were eased, the Yuan Dynasty rule was stable and smooth, the country's song and dance leveled up, and its national strength was strong. Temple No. Wuzong, No. Renhui Xuanxiao Emperor.

Biography

In 1307 AD, Tie Muer died of illness because Yuan Chengzong ’s only son, Prince Deshou, died in December 1305. The son of a son, Haishan Yuan Chengzong, inherited the throne and passed the palace coup. Haishan took over the throne in the lunar calendar in May 1307, and it was changed to Yuan in the following year. That is Yuan Wuzong.

In a court battle in 1307, Chinese civilization faced a great danger. Ananda, the grandson of Yuan Shizu, was inclined to Islam. He is familiar with the Qur'an and excels in Arabic. He is the governor of Ningxia (Dalu Huachi) and a passionate propagator of Islam within his sphere of influence. His father, Yuan Chengzong, once imprisoned him for converting him to Buddhism. When Yuan Chengzong died, Ananda attempted to seize the throne, but his nephew Haishan won the throne and executed him. Chinese civilization has avoided the possibility of a radical change.

Yuan Wuzong reigned for four years (1307-1311). It was not long, but the contradictions within China were eased. The Yuan dynasty rule was stable and smooth. The nation's song and dance leveled up and its national strength was strong.

Wu Zong was the eldest son of the eldest son of King Kublai Khan, the true second son of Emperor Jin, and he answered the eldest son of the eighth hemp hemp. In the eleventh year (1307), Cheng Tiemuer died of illness, and his storage was vacant. Emperor Chengzong asked Zhenshi to drop the curtain to obey the government, and ordered Anxi King Ananda to answer the supplementary government. Haishan returned to most of the cities to be mourned. His brother Alibaba Lepali Bada conspired with right-hand prime minister Hadai Hassun to hold Haishan as emperor for Yuan Wuzong, and chase his father as Yuan Shunzong. After the throne was replaced, the Minister of Sejong was replaced, and his younger brother Ai Yuli was drawn as the Crown Prince.

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Yuan Renzong Ai Yu Li Ba Li Bada introduced the emperor who ruled the country by Confucianism

Yuan Renzong's son-in- law only loved Aiyu Liba Lida (April 9, 1285-March 1, 1320), the fourth emperor of the Yuan Dynasty , the Mongolian Empire Khan, was the emperor's younger brother , and the emperor was enshrined As the emperor's younger brother, meet the brother and the last brother, the uncle and nephew pass. He took his throne at the time of Wu Zong's death, with the names Huang Qing and Yan You. During his reign, he reduced redundant staff, rectified the administration, and promoted the policy of "ruling the country with Confucianism." After nine years of his reign, he did not pass on Wu Zong's son and Shi Xun, but passed on his son Yuan Yingzong Shuode Baba. The temple name is Renzong, the emperor is Saint Wenqin, the emperor, and the khan is "Pu Yandu Khan".

Introduction

Xie Erjin · Ayurparibhadra (April 9, 1285—March 1, 1320) was the ninth emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (the fourth place after the country ’s name was changed to Yuan) Emperor), reigned from April 7, 1311 to March 1, 1320. He is the younger brother of Yuan Wuzong. Yuan Wuzong named him the emperor's younger brother. When Wu Zong died, he was named Huang Qing (1312 in the first year) and Yanyou (1314 in the first year). After nine years of his reign, the temple name Renzong, the Hanwen Qin Emperor Shengwen Qinxiao, and the Mongolian Wenxu BuyantuQaγan (also translated as Bayantu Khan). During his reign, he reduced redundant staff, rectified the administration, and promoted the policy of "ruling the country with Confucianism."

Life

In the early years of his life, Aiyu Liba Libada learned Confucian classics from Tai Chang Shaoqing Li Meng. In the nine years of Dade (1305), he lived in Huaizhou. In the eleventh year, Chengzong died, and he returned to the capital mostly to be mourned. He conspired with his right-hand prime minister, Hato Hassun, and established the elder brother Haishan (Yuanwuzong) to the north of the unified army as the emperor. Emperor Yuanwu named him the emperor's elder brother, and met his brother and his brother, and his uncle and nephew passed on. Houren's mentor was mentored by Prince Wang Zhanshi and Wang Yue repeatedly advised not to show his sharp edge, and eventually became benevolent. There are comments in the 24th volume of the Book of "Yu Pei's Continuing Capital Management and General Administration" in Sikuquan. "The words of the king's view of King Junzong's remarks can be regarded as those who do not fall short of their duties. However, the good governance of Renzong is often seen in history books. Wang Yue's counseling can be at its beginning. If Wang Yi is the philosopher of Yi Renzong. "

After he was in power in the fourth year (1311), he carried out reforms with great fanfare, canceled the Shangshu province, suspended the use of large silver bills, cut redundant staff, and rectified the administration.

Emperor Qing changed his reign (1312) Ren Zong appointed Wang Yote to be a scholar of Jixian University and proposed his "Prosperity of Imperial Examinations " to "write for Lingjia". In the second year of Emperor Qing (1313) in the lunar calendar in October, Renzong requested the imperial examinations in the province of Zhongshu. On the 18th day of the 2nd lunar month of Huangqing (December 6, 1313), Yuan Renzong resumed his imperial examinations. On the 20th day of the lunar calendar in the first year of Yanyou (1314), a township test was held nationwide, and a total of 300 people were admitted. In the second year of Yanyou (1315), three hundred people who passed the rural test in February in the lunar calendar held a trial of one hundred people in Beijing Metropolis. On March 7th, one hundred candidates in the test held a palace test in the Imperial Palace in Beijing. At last, fifty-six people including Hudu Da'er and Zhang Qiyan were admitted. This imperial examination is similar to the old system of the Tang and Song dynasties, and respects Zhu Xi's learning. The imperial examination was abandoned after the Meng Yuan eradicated gold and Song. "Yanyou Fuke" was 36 years from the death of Song Dynasty and 81 years from the death of Jin. The Han scholars here have regained the normal path of promotion. Ethnic conflicts have eased.

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Emperor Yuan Yingzong's Shude Baba introduced the emperor killed in the palace coup

Yuan Yingzong's son-in-law was only Jin Shuo De Ba Yao (1303-1323), a Mongolian, the fifth-generation emperor of the Yuan Dynasty , and the Mongolian empire sweating a lot. Yuan Renzong's sister-in-law. Yingzong studied Han Confucian classics from an early age. He was crown prince in 1316 and was 18 years old when he was elected. In August 1323, Yuan Yingzong and worshiped from Shangdu (now Zhenglan Banner East of Inner Mongolia) and returned to Dadu (now Beijing). They were assassinated by iron loss during camping at Nanpodian (30 miles southwest of Shangdu) on the way. In history, it was called "the change of Nanpo". Yingzong was only 20 years old when he died. He reigned for four years. The temple was named Yingzong, the emperor Ruisheng Wenxiao emperor, and the Mongolian emperor Gejianhan.

Introduction

Yuan Yingzong (1303-1323), the name of the eighth emperor, the eldest son of Yuan Renzong, the fifth emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (1320-1323), Mongolian is called Gejian Emperor. In the early years, he studied the history of the Confucian classics from Han Confucianism, and ascended the throne for seven years (1320). He used the Taichang ceremonial court to make worship as the left prime minister, and opposed the right and right minister Tiemudieer. In the second year of the reign (1322), Tiemudie died, and he worshipped as the right-hand prime minister, and vigorously reformed. Promulgated the "Zhengtai Platform System" to re-use Han Confucian scholars and recruit talents; to dismiss the Huiyuan Government House, reduce redundant officials and streamline institutions; implement the law of assisted service to reduce unlicensed service; issue the "Great Yuan System" to strengthen the legal system. Eliminate Tiemudieer Yudang, execute the Xuanzheng Yuan and make Ba Sijisi (the son of Tiemudie), and investigate its crimes. Conspiracy such as Tiemudieer Yudang and Yushi Tieshi launched a coup. In August of the following year, Yuan Yingzong and Bai lived from Shangdu (now Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia) and returned to Dadu (now Beijing) on the way. They were camped at Nanpodian (30 miles southwest of Shangdu) on the way and were assassinated by iron loss. . History calls it "the change of the South Slope." For four years, he was named Yingzong.

Life

He was only jin · Shuo De Ba 剌 was educated in Confucianism from an early age and knew the feudal culture of the Han nationality. Yanyou was crown prince for three years (1316), and he was emperor for seven years. In his three years in office (1320-1323), Shi Renzong's mother replied that her mother-in-law, Tiemu Dieer, who had been dismissed by Ren Zong, was the right-hand prime minister, colluding with each other, eliminating dissidents, and swaying power. In order to consolidate his position, Yuan Yingzong's descendants, Mu Huali descendants, worshiped as the left prime minister, and tried to suppress the power of the one-party, Tiemudieer party. To the two years of rule (1322), in August and September, Tiemu Dieer and Tianji died successively. In October, Libai lived as the right-hand prime minister, expressing his desire to strive for good governance and a new service. In the following months, some reform measures have been taken: extensive use of Han landlord officials and Confucians, such as Zhangye, Wu Yuanzhang, Wang Yue, Wu Cheng, etc .; release of the "Zhengtai Platform", requiring the selection of talents and selection of talents ; Dismiss the Huizhou Government House and redundant officials, streamline the organization, control financial resources, implement the law of assisted service and reduce servitude; enact the "Great Yuan General System" to strengthen the legal system and promote the Han law; Their corruption case. These measures were opposed by some conservative Mongolian nobles.

Yingzong New Deal

Yuan Yingzong's Shuo De eighth to the second year of administration (1322) promoted the political reform of the New Deal.

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Yuan Taiding and Sun Tiemu'er introduced five famines during his reign

Yuan Tai Dingdi (1276-1328), also Sun Tiemuer , the eldest son of Xianzong and grandson of Yuzong. Ascended the throne in 1323, reigned Taiding Emperor for five years, and also named Sun Tiemuer, the grandson of the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, Jin Jin, his father, Gamarra. He was embraced as emperor in 1323. The reform results of the Ren and British dynasties were basically retained. He died in 1328 at the age of 53.

Personal profile

Emperor Taiding (November 28, 1293-August 15, 1328), the sixth emperor of the Yuan Dynasty , his reign was from October 4, 1323 to August 15, 1328, for five years.

Regarding the birth year of Emperor Taiding, the sayings in Yuanshi contradict each other. In Yuanshi Taidingdi one, it is said that "the emperor was born in Jindi until October 29th." The year was 1276, but in "Yuanshi Taiding Emperor II", it was said that "Gengwu, Emperor Beng, Shou thirty-six". According to this statement, he should be born in 1293 (to the thirty years of Yuan). It is likely that the author mistakenly wrote "Thirty" as "Thirteen". Taiding Emperor was born in Jindi. In 1292, Gan Mazhen was named King of Jin, and in 1328 his eldest son Aso Jiba was only 8 years old, so Taiding Emperor should be born in 1293. ("Cambridge, China, Liaoxi, Xia Jin and Yuan Dynasty" believes that "to the 13th year of Yuan" recorded in "Yuanshi" should be a "to the 30th year of the Yuan" (1293). There are three reasons for this: First, Sun Tiemu's father Gan Mazhen was born in 1263 (Yuan Shi, Vol. 115, p. 2893). It is physiologically impossible for him to have a son at the age of 13. Second, Sun Tiemuer was born in "Jindi" ( "Yuanshi", Vol. 29, p. 637), and Gan Mazhen was only named Jin king in 1292. Third, Sun Tiemuer named Haishan and Ai Yuli Palida in his ascending edict, "Big Brother" "(Yuanshi, Vol. 29, p. 638). In a book of thrones by the son of Haishan Tutemur, Sun Tiemuer is also called" uncle "" Yuanshi ", Vol. 32, p. 709). Haishan was born in 1281, and Alibaba Palida was born in 1285. Sun Tiemuer, as their brother, could not be born in 1276. He should have been born in 1293 and died in 1328 at the age of 35)

His father, Gan Mozhang, was the eldest son of the eldest prince, Zhen Jin, and was named Jin king in 1292. After the death of Gan Mazhen in 1302, Sun Tiemuer assaulted the throne.

In March 1323, Ye Tiemuer's close friends near Yuan Yingzong told him that Yingzong would be bad for Ye Tiemuer. On August 2, the same year, Sun Tiemuer received the news that Yingzong would be assassinated and he would be welcomed as emperor. After the assassination of Yingzong, Sun Tiemuer was also established as emperor. On the fourth day of September, September 4th (October 4, 1323), he ascended the throne in Longjuhe. Although Sun Tiemuer was an insider, he ordered the assassination of the people who killed Yingzong after he ascended the throne.

In 1324, the Taiding Emperor changed the Yuan Taiding, and in March eighty-eight Hans became the queen. At that time, the six dynasties of old ancestors (Shizu, Chengzong, Wuzong, Renzong, Yingzong, and Taiding) were used as King Scholars of Jixian University. The Imperial Examination was conducted by Imperial Examinations , and eighty-five people including Hachiman and Zhang Yi were admitted. The number of subjects in Division B has been increased to 15.

Beginning in 1325, Taiding Emperor began to reduce state expenditures because the state treasury income was less than expenditure. In July, he ordered that Han people not be allowed to collect and carry weapons.

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Brief Introduction of Emperor Yuan Tianshun Aso Yahachi Reigned Young Emperor in January

Xuan Erjin Jin Ashujiba (1320-1328?), The seventh emperor of the Yuan Dynasty , also known as Mongolian Ashidab. It was in power from October 17, 1328 to November 14, 1328. Emperor Dexiao, known as Emperor Tianshun in history.

Life

To the 10th day of July, the first year of the first year (August 15, 1328), Sun Tiemuer, the emperor of the Tai Tai Dynasty , died of illness on the ground, and the prime minister turned to sand for his own use. After more than a month, he was still a young Prince. Ji Jiba ascended the throne.

To September 13, the first year of the first year (October 16, 1328), Yan Tiemuer, the member of the Zhiyuan Academy, held the throne of Tutmuir, the son of the Yuan Wuzong , in the capital (now Beijing), and changed the "day calendar" of the Yuan to the post. Muer is for Yuan Wenzong .

To the first year of the first year, the prime minister returned to Shasha to support the 9-year-old crown prince, Aji Jiba, as the emperor, changing the Yuan to "Tianshun".

The emperor Tianshun of Shangdu fell down and sent troops to attack the Wenzong court in the capital. The Yuanwenzong sent Yan Timur to face the army. After two wars, the two sides had victory and defeat at the beginning, and most of the courts gradually occupied military advantages.

On October 13th of the first year of Tianshun (November 14, 1328), most of the imperial army surrounded Shangdu, and the Prime Minister and other ministers such as Shasha surrendered to the emperor's treasure. The Tianshun year was abolished by Yuan Wenzong, and Shaoxu was surrendering. Killed a month later.

Tian Shun Emperor's whereabouts were unknown after he surrendered to the surrendered sand, and he was in office for about a month.

The Ajiji Bawu Temple and Nianhao are called Tianshun Emperor by the year.

Missing Mystery

Although the power ministers who stayed in Shangdu fell on the sand to surrender in order to offer the city, they were later killed by Emperor Wenzong. Zhu Yaoting's "The 15th Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty" said: "Tianshun Emperor Asoji was captured." Zhuo Zhonglin's "Edited Romance of the Yuan Dynasty" said: "Some people said that the little emperor had already been killed. Unknown and other words to cover. "Although Tianshun Emperor Azuki has no idea where he is going, he has actually been assassinated by Wen Zong Tu Te Muer, that is," Wen Yu Tian Shun. " Liang Wang and Wang Zen died after being captured. The Shangdu side had no heads, and the various armies collapsed one after another. Most of them won, and the battle between the two capitals ended in failure.

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Yuan Tsung Muer's Brief Introduction to Yuan Dynasty

The Emperor Yuanzong of the Yuan Dynasty only tutumuer (1304 ~ 1332), the name of the Tutumuer, Mongolian, the eighth generation emperor of the Yuan Dynasty , reigned from 1328 to 1329; later reset, the reign period was 1329- In 1332, he reigned for five years. Yuan Wuzong 's second son of Haishan, brother of Mingzong. Tutmuir is the son of Wu Zong and the younger brother of Ming Zong. Emperor Taiding was embraced as emperor after his death. He can be described as a conspirator, first usurping the throne that should be inherited by Azovichi, and then destroying the authentic crown prince Azovichi. Then he conspired to kill his brother Mingzong and Shizhen.

Although Tutemur was full of conspiracies throughout his life, he still paid attention to culture and education and wrote several poems, so the temple name is "Wenzong". However, he greatly promoted Buddhism, spent a lot of money, the dictatorship of Yan Temuri, the sharp minister, and the long-term royal struggle. Eventually the Yuan Dynasty was brought into a state of collapse.

Changes in the calendar and the first year of the year (1328), Emperor Taiding died, and Yan Tiemuer, a member of the Privy Council, launched a coup in most of the cities, seeking Wu Zongzi as the emperor, and sent him to Jiangling to welcome the capital. In August, King Liang Wang, Chan, and Prime Minister Shao Sha supported the Taiding Emperor Asoji Bayu in the capital, sending troops to attack the capital. In September, Tutmer Muer succeeded the emperor in the capital, changed the calendar of the Yuan Dynasty, with the support of Yan Tiemuer and his affiliated Qincha legion and some of the old Wuzong Ministry, [1-5] defeated Wang Chan and poured sand. Shangdu; then dispatched troops to calm down the opposition groups in Sichuan and Yunnan. In the second year of the Tianli calendar (1329), the eldest son of Wu Zong and Shi Xun were emperors in Helin North, and this was Ming Zong. When Mingzong traveled southward to Wanghuchadu near the upper capital (now north of Zhangbei County, Hebei), the nominally absent Tutmer and Yan Tiemuer greeted them, waiting for the opportunity to poison the Mingzong. So Tutmuir was located in Shangdu in August. The following year, the Yuan calendar was changed, and history called the change of the calendar.

Historical achievements

During his reign, he founded Kui Zhangge and edited the "Classic Ceremony", which was quite interested in promoting culture. Yuan Dynasty official repair book. Also known as "Dynasty Ceremony". The first year of Yuan Wenzong to Shun Shun (1330) was compiled by Kui Zhangge Academy, with Zhao Shiyan as president and Yu Ji as vice president. It was completed in May of the following year. The whole book is 880 volumes, the catalogue is 12 volumes, with a public volume, and a general volume for compilation. According to the "Preface of the Economic Classics" collected in the "Yuanwen Class", the book is divided into ten articles: four princely affairs, namely the emperor's title, the imperial training, the imperial system, and the imperial family. Six articles, namely, the Code, Fu Code, Ceremonial Code, Political Code, Constitutional Code, and Industrial Code, each code is divided into several items.

The style of the book refers to Tang and Song Huiyao, and is somewhat innovative. For example, the works can be divided into palaces, palaces, warehouses, cities and towns, bridges, rivers, suburban temples, monasteries, road palaces, tents, weapons, halogen books, jade workers, metal workers, carpenters, mason workers, masonry The silken work, leatherwork, felting, painting, and craftsman 22 are mostly required by the Tang and Song dynasties. Before each article and headline, there are narratives explaining the outline of the content, the reason for the change, or the purpose, so that readers can understand that this compilation method is better than the Tang and Song dynasties. The basis is mostly the official documents of China, North Korea, and the outer roads, but the Mongolian literal translation has been changed to the Chinese language, and the official words in the official document have been deleted.

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Yuan Mingzong and Shi Yan briefed on the Emperor Yuan Dynasty who had been poisoned for eight months

The Yuan Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty (December 22, 1300-August 30, 1329), the Mongolian Empire Khan, Khan "Khududu Khan". The ninth emperor of the Yuan dynasty , the temple was named Mingzong, and the sacred name was Shuntian Lidao, Wenwenzhiwu, and the Great Emperor Xiaoxiao.

Personal profile

Name: Jie Erjin

Temple number: Mingzong

Falcon: Yixian Jingxiao Emperor, Hududu Khan

Mausoleum: from the valley

Living: December 22, 1300-August 30, 1329

Reign: February 27, 1329-August 30, 1329

Father: Yuan Wuzong Haishan

Brother: Yuan Wenzong Tuatemuer

son:

The second son Yuan Ningzong is the quality class; the eldest son Yuan Huizong is happy and happy; the third son Taiyong Wang Suhu Lidor

Year Number: Day Calendar 1329

contribution

Before Yuan Mingzong and Shi Zheng came to power, they proposed a reform of the written letter, which was refuted, degraded, and later named Ming King. He continued to write, and when he was not the emperor, he continuously wrote to the Taiding emperor more than ten times without success.

After the death of Emperor Taiding, the Prime Minister was very sad when he fell down and embraced Asuji as the emperor to implement reforms. Mongolia was divided into two, and Yuan Wenzong was usurped , but the prime minister decided to oppose it and conduct a requisition, which aroused Yuan Wenzong's hatred.

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7-year-old emperor became the 43-day emperor

Xuan Erjin and Xun Zhiban (May 1, 1326-December 14, 1332), the tenth emperor of the Yuan Dynasty , from October 23, 1332 to December 14, 1332. The temple number is Ningzong, and the second number is the emperor. Yuan Ming Zong's son was only Jin and He Shi's second son.

Basic Information

Name: 孛 儿 Only Jin · 懿 璘 quality class

Temple number: Ningzong

Title: Emperor Filial Piety

Mausoleum: from the valley

Living: May 1, 1326-December 14, 1332

Reign: October 23, 1332-December 14, 1332

Father: Yuan Mingzong and Shi Yan

Year number: to 1332

Yuan Ning Zong's children were only two pounds and the quality class (May 1, 1326-December 14, 1332), the second son of Yuan Mingzong. October 23, 1332—December 14, 1332. He died just 53 days after he reigned at the age of seven. His nickname was Emperor Chongsheng, the filial piety emperor, and his honorary name (Khan) was Yilin Qilian. Buried in Qigu Valley, the temple name is Ningzong.

Life story

"Yuan Shi" records that Yuan Ningzong was born in the northern grassland on March 29, 1929, the third day of Taiding in March three years (May 1, 1326).

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Emperor Yuan Shun Duo Duan Muer Introduction to the Last Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty

Xie Erjinjin Tuo Huan Tie Muer (1320.05.25-1370.05.23), the Mongolian empire Khan, Khan "Uhagartu Khan". The eleventh emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (the last emperor of the Yuan Dynasty), the first emperor of the Northern Yuan Dynasty, the temple name Huizong, and the emperor Xuanren Puxiao.

Biography

Born on the 17th day of the lunar calendar in 1320 and died on the 28th day of the lunar calendar in 1370. Lunar June 1333-April 28, 1370 Lunar Calendar reigns. From July 19, 1333 to September 14, 1368, it was the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty . From September 14, 1368, it was returned to Mobei Grassland. From September 14, 1368 to May 23, 1370, it was the emperor of the Northern Yuan Dynasty. In 37 years, he was 51 years old.

During the reign, four year numbers were used, namely:

Lunar June 1333 to October-Lunar October 1333

October 1333 Lunar Calendar-November 1335 Lunar Calendar

From the lunar November to 1340 of the Yuan dynasty (the Yuan ancestor period had the epoch to the first year, which was used again during the Yuan Huizong period)

To 1341-1370

Yuan Huizong was the last emperor to rule the country during the Yuan dynasty, and the first emperor of Beiyuan.

Emperor Yuan Shun was called "Luban Tianzi" by future generations.

Note: The reason why Yuan Huizong is also called Emperor Yuan Shun is because when Ming Taizu attacked the capital, Yuan Huizong did not resist. He only fled some family members to Shangdu, and then fled to Yingchang because there was no large-scale resistance. The Ming Dynasty historian believed that he conformed to God's will, so in the Ming Dynasty history books, he was called Yuan Huizong as Emperor Yuan Shun.

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Conclusion

From the Yuan Dynasty, the great ancestor of Tiemuzhen, to the Yuanshun emperor, there were eleven emperors. For a nation that started from slave society and drank hair, there was no willpower and constant learning. Spiritually, it is impossible to stand still in the Central Plains and open up new territories. The eleven emperors of the Yuan Dynasty can be said to have worked hard for generations without slackening. Wei Yuan evaluated the emperors of the Yuan Dynasty as "all heroes stand alone and no one is ridiculous."

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