The Real Battle of the Red Cliff : The Battle of the Red Cliff is a popular war in the cold weapon era. Because it contains almost all the dramatic elements, such as a strong and weak contrasting army, a strong-willed commander, a tortuous course of defeat and victory, and a heroic story of Perseverance Changhong. Was this war deemed significant by future generations as legendary as people traditionally recognize it? Can it be regarded as the classic battle of "less with more?" What exactly is the Chibi War in history?
Zhuge Liang has never had a "grass boat borrowing arrows". If Sun Liu Lianjun lacks even arrows, what is the point of resisting Cao? The "grass boat borrowing arrows" is not groundless, but there are clues to check. According to the relevant records of Pei Songzhi's Note in The Three Kingdoms , Master Wu, eighteen years after Jian'an (213 years), that is, five years after the Battle of Chibi, Cao Caoping settled in Guanzhong and led his army south to attack Sun Wu. Sun Quan led the battle, and the two armies fought at the mouth of the Yangtze River into Chaohu Lake. Cao Cao was frustrated and stood by the camp for the fighter. One day, Sun Quan borrowed the mist from the river and broke into Cao Jun's frontier from Yingsukou by a light warship to observe Cao Ying's deployment. Cao Cao was suspicious by nature. When he saw the river surrounded by water and mist, Sun Jun purged his majesty. I was afraid he would not dare to fight. He ordered the bows and crossbows to fire and the arrows shot at the ship. Sun Quan's ship was soon full of arrows. Due to the heavy weight of the arrow on one side, the ship gradually tilted and was about to sink. Sun Quan ordered the bow of the ship to be turned and let the other side receive the arrow. After the weight was averaged and the hull was stable, Sun Quan commanded the warship to line up and left slowly, and Cao Cao became fooled. This is just a story that happened to Sun Quan. At first he didn't expect that there were so many arrows in the ship's hull, which made the ship overturn. He did not plan to "borrow arrows," and the history books did not say it was a straw boat.
Since Luo Guanzhong's "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms ", people have used it as a standard for measuring and evaluating the characters of the Three Kingdoms . Most people only know that there is "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms", so the protagonist of "The Straw Boat Borrowing Arrows" has become Zhuge Liang.
It is generally believed that Cao Jun connected the warships with iron chains to make Huang Gai's fire attack work. In fact, Cao Jun's warships were not connected with iron chains. They were connected end to end and closely connected, and they seemed to be connected in a series. In fact, Cao Jun ’s ships were nailed together two by two, so that the sway of the hull was greatly reduced, and the northern soldiers could maintain their combat effectiveness on board. At the same time, the two ships are integrated, and the number of infantry who can engage in side-to-side battles has increased, which caused Jiangdong Army a headache. The Jiangdong Shuijun Army has always won by sideboard battles, but nowadays the difficulty of receiving sideboard battles has become greater, so it is necessary to worry about this.
According to the Records of the Three Kingdoms, Zhou Yu, Captain Wu Feng of Wu Feng advised Zhou Yu: "Today we have many people, it is difficult and long-lasting, but watch the warships, they are connected end to end, and they can be burned away." Under the circumstances that Liu Lianjun could do nothing, Huang Gai's fire attack was indeed the best solution.
In the history of the Three Kingdoms, Huang Gai did not use a bitter flesh meter, but the fraudulent fall has its own business. In order to ensure that unarmed fireboats cannot be intercepted and can approach Cao Junshui Village smoothly, Huang Gai surrendered to Cao Cao. "The Legend of Jiang Biao" records Huang Gai's book of swindling. In the book of swindling, he believes that the military strength of the six counties in the Jiangdong area cannot resist the more than one million troops in the Central Plains. In order to avoid being destroyed with Sun Quan and Zhou Yu, he was willing to surrender to Cao Cao.
Cao Cao told Huang Gai's representative to accept his surrender, telling him to bring his troops and weapons and grain on a specified date and to take a boat from the south bank to the north bank.
In "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms", Zhou Yu, in order to convince Cao Cao that Huang Gai was not a fraudulent surrender, but actually descended. He specially performed a "bitter plan" and first called Huang Gai to openly offend Zhou Yu when he held a military conference. So Zhou Yu was furious and dragged Huang Gai to the left and beheaded them. The generals begged each other. Huang Gai was spared, and he hit 50 "spine staffs" instead, "skin flesh, blood flowing."
The fact is that Huang Gai never suffered this suffering, nor did he need to suffer. Cao Cao easily believed that Huang Gai's surrender was real, not false. First, his strength is greater than that of Sun Liulian. Huang Gai's reluctance to die with Zhou Yu is quite reasonable. Secondly, what Cao Cao knows about Huang Gai is that Huang Gai had been a subordinate of Sun Jian , and was more qualified than Zhou Yu, and was subordinate to Zhou Yu. Third, the generals of various parties have surrendered Cao Cao too much in the past decade. Cao Cao became a habit, so he did not have much doubt about the fall of Huang Gai. Besides, after Huang Gai's fall, he fell into his palm and wanted to dispose of it at any time. Therefore, Cao Cao accepted Huang Gai's surrender.
Without Dongfeng, fire attack can still be carried out
It has always been agreed that Huang Gai must attack the southeast wind in order to attack Cao Jun's fleet docked along the river. If there is no southeast wind, Huang Gai's fire attack must not be successful. This conclusion is very one-sided.
When Huang Gai suggested a long-range fire attack, he did not mention the wind direction, but only mentioned that Cao Jun's ships were connected end to end, and he could conduct a fire attack. According to the analysis of the book "History of Chinese Shipbuilding" by Xi Longfei, director of the China Shipbuilding Engineering Society, Chinese sailing technology appeared in the Warring States Period, and it was already mature in the Han Dynasty. Among them, the record of sailing technology is the most valuable in the "Nanzhou Foreign Objects" written by Toko Wanzhen of the Three Kingdoms ("Taiping Royal View · Volume 717"), which contains a detailed description of the use of lateral wind. Sail made of wood leaves, this kind of sail can "its four sails are not straight forward". Therefore, it was certain that the Soochow Squadron was equipped with sails that could use crosswinds. Therefore, Huang Gai's fire attack ship does not have to drive in the wind direction, but can use the lateral wind. In addition, Zhou Yu and Huang Gai have repeatedly conducted water wars in the Yangtze River Basin. Zhou Yu has confirmed that the wind direction in this season can be used for fire attack.
Taking a step back, without the effect of wind, the fire attack plan can still be implemented. Huang Gai can completely load a boat filled with hay from the upstream of the south bank to the downstream of the north bank, relying on water power instead of wind. Cai Yan and Zhang Yun were not involved in the "countermeasure".
Jiang Qian in history was indeed Zhou Yu's fellow county, and was indeed sent by Cao Cao to persuade Zhou Yu. But not in the Battle of Chibi, Pei Songzhi recorded it after the Battle of the Three Kingdoms, and only Jiang Qian advised him to surrender.
Jiang Qian "has good looks, he is able to argue with talent", even though such a deft debater could not shake Zhou Yu's will, when returning to see Cao Cao, Jiang Qian also praised Zhou Yu for his "elegance and generosity, not his words." This episode aims to testify to Zhou Yu's "graceful and magnanimous" mind, but it has become a novelist's contribution to the battle of the Red Cliff. In "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms", Zhou Yu used Jiang Qian to pass the forged surrender book, which caused Cao Cao to have doubts about the water chiefs Cai Yan and Zhang Yun, and eventually executed the two, thus removing a big hidden danger for Zhou Yu and becoming the Red Cliff. The key to Zhou Yu's victory in the battle.
In fact, Cai Yan and Zhang Yun in the history books were not involved in the "countermeasures", they were not even Cao Cao's governors of the water army. In The Story of the Three Kingdoms, Dong Eryuan and Liu Chuan, when talking about Cai Yan and Zhang Yun, they only mentioned that the two were Liu Biao ’s second son Liu Xie ’s party feathers. When Liu Biao was dying, he prevented Liu Biao ’s eldest son Liu Qi from seeing, and strongly supported Liu Xie to take office . Immediately after Cao Cao's conquest of the army, the first person to jump out to persuade Liu Xie to surrender was not Cai and Zhang, but a group of old watchmakers such as Yue Yue, Fu Xuan, and Han Song. The common characteristics of these people are the Central Plains people who avoid war and live in Jingzhou. Compared with the natives of Jingzhou, such as Cai Yan and Zhang Yun, Jingzhou's interests are meaningless to them. Have a good impression, and are more willing to accept the return of land in order to obtain an official half. Therefore, Cao Cao also offered generous favors after obtaining Jingzhou and sealed Hou Yue and 15 others. However, Cai Yun and Zhang Yun did not appear in the roll-call list. Although they were also among the surrendered officials, they also received rewards, but they were really ingenious and could not be reused.
As for who is Cao Cao's Shuijundu? There is no record in the history books, but it is certain that in terms of Cao Cao's habit of using people, it is impossible to use an outsider to command this huge sailor. Cao Cao drilled the Xuanwu Lake in Tancheng as early as the beginning of the year to practice the navy, and I believe that the candidate for Du Dushui had already been selected at that time. Later literary works, for the purpose of shaping Zhou Yu's role, fictionalized the plot where Cai Yun and Zhang Yuntong led the sailors and were killed unfairly, which also made Cao Cao's Shuijun a blow and collapse in theory to rationalize.
From the perspective of reading history, many details about the Battle of the Red Cliff are very different from the traditional understanding of people. The extent to which today ’s scholars can search for the truth of the war more than 1800 years ago has no way of verifying it. Even the more objective and documentary "Three Kingdoms" war in Chibi may be quite different from the actual battle process. Today's impression of the Battle of the Red Cliff is more of a distorted historical story of Yang Liu and Cao Cao.
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