Battle of Pingjin: From the end of 1948 to the beginning of 1949, the 64-day battle of Pingjin killed the Kuomintang's last mobile unit in North China. Except for a few isolated strongholds, including Guisui (now Hohhot), Taiyuan and Xinxiang, the entire North China, including the historical capital Beiping, was liberated. Different from the previous Liaoshen and Huaihai battles , the Pingjin battle was a battle under the PLA's absolute strength and weaponry. Therefore, for the North China Kuomintang heavy-arms group, Mao ’s most pressing issue is not whether he can overcome it, but how to stab enemy forces in North China to avoid their withdrawal, and then wipe them out with the fastest, most thorough, minimal casualties and damage. To accelerate the national liberation process.
The famous chess player in the Song Dynasty Liu Zhongfu said in "Chess" that "the one who chooses, the big plan for chess", "the choice is unknown, and the trouble is coming." The primary task of the Pingjin Campaign envisaged by Mao Zedong was to avoid the withdrawal of the North China Kuomintang army from the south of the sea and the second to avoid the retreat of Fu Zuoyi to the west. However, at this time no Communist Party forces could prevent the Kuomintang army from possible actions. So Mao Zedong commanded his generals with a telegram, launching a dazzling , interlocking layout. To resolve the North China Kuomintang army, it was necessary to dispatch the Shino Army, but the movement of the Shino Army, the huge momentum is likely to disintegrate the depressed morale of the Kuomintang Army, causing the latter to flee south of the sea in advance. So Shino's troop began in extremely secretive circumstances.
Fu Zuoyi had previously deployed an army in the Shanningguan area of the Beining Line where Northeast China must pass through the customs. The Kuomintang troops with air superiority never forget to reconnaissance the military movement of the Communist Party of Beining Line from the air. However, Mao Zedong chose the route of Huang Taiji's march to Beijing. He ordered Dongye not to go to Shanhaiguan, and all troops entered the customs from Jehol Province through Lengkou and Xifeng. In order to avoid the Kuomintang air force reconnaissance, all troops traveled day and night, and in terms of public opinion, all public opinion agencies were ordered to strengthen the reports of the Northeast Field Army celebrating and training in the Northeast. Even one week after Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan, and Liu Yalou left the northeast, the Central Military Commission instructed the "Northeast Daily" to publish a piece of news that Lin Biao was still in Shenyang, to confuse Fu Zuoyi through a Xinhua news broadcast.
After Shino entered the customs, the first task was to quickly control the North China Nationalist Army ’s estuary, Tanggu. However, after a million troops moved south, the speed was limited after all. In order to avoid any possibility of Fu Zuoyi escaping during this period, Mao Zedong launched his serial plan. As the Four Wilders went south, Mao Zedong ordered the North China Field Army to stop besieging Sui Yuan and Yan Xishan under the control of Fu Zuoyi. The move was to avoid Fu Zuoyi giving up Beiping ahead of time because he was afraid of losing Suiyuan's retreat to the west. Then at the end of November 1948, the North China Yang Chengwu Corps suddenly surrounded Zhangjiakou, a major town connecting Beiping and Suiyuan, and cut off the connection between Zhangjiakou and the east and west ends.
Under the circumstances that the unknown East Army had begun to travel south, Fu Zuoyi made a wrong judgment. He mistakenly thought that this was just another local operation after the North China Field Army abandoned the siege of Suiyuan. Fu Zuoyi dispatched the most elite trump card 35 army to rescue Zhangjiakou. His plan was to first break through the North China Field Army before the Four Fields went south, and then fully fight the Four Fields. As a result, Fu Zuoyi's main army 35 was seduced from the surrounding area of Peiping to the front line of Zhangjiakou. The Central Military Commission repeatedly stated from December 1 to 4 that "this situation is extremely beneficial to me."
At this time, the Northeast Field Army troops were found near Beiping Miyun, shaking Fu Zuoyi. He hastily mobilized 3 troops of 62, 92, and 94 troops stationed in Tianjin to transfer to Peiping to strengthen urban defense, and ordered 35 troops to withdraw from Peiping. At this time, the 35 army officers and soldiers did not know that they had become the core joint of Mao Zedong's containment of Fu Zuoyi and the construction of the battle plan of the Pingjin Campaign.
Mao Zedong's plan was to surround Zhangjiakou and the 35th Army with the North China team as the main force, forcing Fu Zuoyi to abandon his old army and resolve to withdraw from the south of the sea. The 35th Army is the foundation of Fu Zuoyi and Fu Zuoyi's most elite trump card. Mao Zedong ordered the North China Field Army and the advance troops of the Northeast Field Army that entered the Miyun area to abandon all other branch tasks and quickly move closer to the 35th Army. Mao Zedong was convinced that Fu Zuoyi would never abandon the 35th Army without saving it. When he seized the 35th Army, he captured all the troops of Fu Zuoyi. And Fu Zuoyi's rescue will move the Kuomintang army in Peiping to the west, which will help the main forces of the Northeast Field Army go south to cut off the connection between Peiping and Tianjin. "As long as you can catch and fight the above 16 step brigades on the flat line and annihilate one of them in December, the enemy cannot move, cannot flee to the west, and cannot flee to the east. Strategic victory. "
However, at this time, some PLA generals have not fully penetrated Mao Zedong's strategic deployment. The Northeast Advance Corps closest to the Beiping-Zhangjiakou line arrived near Miyun as early as December 3. In order to overcome the unimportant goal of Miyun, the ministry sent troops that had crossed the Chaobai River back to attack Miyun. It was already dusk on December 5 when Miyun conquered. The night before, Fu Zuoyi had already ordered the 35th Army to return to Peiping on December 6.
On December 4, Mao Zedong sent three telegrams to the commander of the North China Second Corps, Yang Dezhi, within 19 hours. At 2 am, the 2nd Corps "should take the front line of the Xiahua Garden area by the fastest means"; at 16pm, "Make a quick move to surround the enemies of Xuanhua and Xiahuayuan with full strength"; at 21:00, Make Zhangjiakou's enemies unable to retreat. " Under the urging of Mao Zedong's severe military order, the Second Corps in North China and the Northeast Advance Corps who had previously been greedy for power went over mountains and mountains at a speed of 100 kilometers per day and night and marched towards the new security area. At 3 o'clock in the morning on December 6, Mao Zedong ordered the Second Corps to "resolutely stop the enemy in Xuanhua and Xiahuayuan." While Yang Dezhi was reading the telegram during the march, the combat staff quickly reported that the 35th Army had crossed the lower garden and ran to the new security.
Once the 35th Army passed the new security and met with the enemy 104 Army in Huailai, Mao Zedong's deployment strategy was defeated. However, the 35th Army did not seize this opportunity to survive, because the 35th Army Captain Guo Jingyun also did not understand the strategic intention of the coach. During the retreat, Guo Jingyun ignored Fu Zuoyi's urging, and was repeatedly angered by the Communist Party's harassment of the army. He was greedy for battle and eventually delayed the retreat. On December 8, the main force of the Second Regiment marching for six consecutive days and nights finally encircled the 35th Army in the new security. For the 35th Army trapped in the new security town, Mao Zedong at this time temporarily ordered the siege and not wiped out.
At this time, the Communist forces completely encircled Zhangjiakou and the new security forces, which completely cut off the passage of the North China Kuomintang army to the west. But at this time, the Northeast Field Army was still a few days away from Pingjin and Tanggu, and the passage of the Kuomintang army from the sea had not been cut off. In Mao Zedong's eyes, not only Fu Zuoyi of North China, but also Jiangnan and Huaihai. At this time in the Huaihai battlefield, several regiments commanded by Du Yuanming were surrounded by the PLA. If the Du Queming Group is quickly annihilated, Chiang Kai-shek may quickly abandon North China and protect Jiangnan, forcing Fu Zuoyi to abandon all the besieged forces and lead his remnants through the sea to the south. Similarly, if the main line of Fu Zuoyi was destroyed too quickly in the area of the Pingzhang line at this time, the Kuomintang troops in the areas of Pingjin and Tanggu might also be fleeing from the sea south due to fear.
Mao Zedong wanted all the 550,000 troops in the North China Kuomintang, not just Fu Zuoyi's main force. To this end, he telegraphed the former Huaihai General Commissioner and, after siege Du Duming Group, did not make the final annihilation plan for two weeks. At the same time, they ordered the main force of Fu Zuoyi, who was surrounded by Zhangjiakou and the new security guards, not to be wiped out.
The new security campaign made Fu Zuoyi the main force to the west, tired to rescue the 35th army, and won the time for the four main forces to enter the customs. On December 13, the main striker of the Northeast Field Army descended from Peiping. By December 20th, the PLA's various ministries had completed the encirclement of five areas of Zhangjiakou, Xinbaoan, Peiping, Tianjin, and Tanggu. At this point, all the remaining main forces of the North China Kuomintang army have been enclosed in these five isolated areas, and there is no possibility of escape.
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