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What was the impact of the Pingjin Campaign?
Interesting history2016-10-21 14:31:13

The Pingjin Battle was the last of the three major battles. The Communist Party wiped out the well-equipped 500,000 army of the KMT at the cost of 39,000 casualties. The Pingjin Campaign had a huge impact, not only liberating Beijing, Tianjin, and other places, causing the Kuomintang to lose its fighting power in the Central Plains and other places, but also greatly promoting the liberation of China.

Battle of pingjin


Battle of pingjin

The most direct impact of the Pingjin Campaign was to liberate Tianjin and protect Beiping from war damage. After the battle of Pingjin began, under the offensive strategy established by Mao Zedong, the Communist Party of China encircled the enemies stationed in Zhangjiakou and Tianjin, and cut off their retreat, one by one, and liberated Tianjin and Tanggu. After liberating Tianjin, 250,000 enemies were trapped in the cultural ancient city of Peiping. In order to protect this ancient city from being destroyed by the desperate KMT army, the Communist Party negotiated with Fu Zuoyi and signed a peace agreement to protect Peiping from artillery attacks.

Wax statue inside the Pyeongjin Battle Memorial


Wax statue inside the Pyeongjin Battle Memorial

The most important impact of the Pingjin Campaign was a new chapter in Chinese history. The battle of Pingjin was the last of the three major battles. After the end of the battle, the Kuomintang army was severely damaged, and internal contradictions also became prominent, which directly led to their failure in the civil war. And through this battle, the Communist Party not only seized a large number of weapons and changed a large number of Kuomintang soldiers, but also harvested the hearts and minds of the people, so that they have a stronger mass foundation and are fully prepared for the establishment of a new China.

Group carvings in front of the Pingjin Battle Memorial


Group carvings in front of the Pingjin Battle Memorial

The impact of the Pingjin Campaign was huge. After the Pingjin Campaign ended, the three-year civil war was basically over, and most areas were liberated. The Chinese people ushered in a new era in which the people are the masters of the country.

The battle of Pingjin lasted several days

The issue of the Pingjin Battle lasted for a few days. It has always been a concern for those who are interested in modern Chinese history, especially the history of the liberation war period. There are generally two views on this issue in the historical circles. The first view is 64 days. According to this view, the battle of Pingjin began on November 29, 1948 and ended on January 31, 1949. The second view is that it took 56 days. The view is that the battle of Pingjin started on December 6, 1948 and ended on January 31, 1949.

Battle of pingjin


Battle of pingjin

From the above two perspectives, it can be seen that the academic community is quite controversial about the start of the Pingjin Campaign. Regarding the issue of the Pingjin Battle lasting several days, more people still prefer the first view that it takes a total of 64 days. It was in these short 64 days that the Kuomintang was losing ground, causing serious damage to its own elite troops, but the PLA was getting more and more brave, with the liberation of Peiping as the symbol. The victory of the Pingjin Campaign basically liberated the entire North China region. Become a liberated area.

Of the three major battles, the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign began on September 12, 1948, and ended on November 2, 1948, which lasted 52 days; the Huaihai Campaign began on November 6, 1948, and ended on January 10, 1949. Day, which lasted 66 days; and the battle of Pingjin lasted for a few days. As mentioned in the previous article, there are two types. The wider acceptance is 64 days. With the end of the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign, the Huaihai Campaign began. The Pingjin Campaign and the Huaihai Campaign started at the same time. In the Huaihai Campaign, although the PLA's casualties were very heavy, it also won in the end, which is the victory of the previous two wars Promoting the overall victory of the third battle, the victory of the Pingjin battle is enough to show the KMT's overall failure. After the war, Peking and even North China were liberated.

What are the characteristics of the Pingjin Campaign

After the Liao-Shen campaign ended, in accordance with the layout of the CPC Central Committee, on November 23, 1948, Dongye's main force secretly marched toward Kannai. On November 25, the 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region in Jining moved eastward.

Battle of pingjin


Battle of pingjin

On November 29, the Battle of Pingjin officially started. The 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region took the lead in attacking the Kuomintang army outside Zhangjiakou. Fu Zuoyi ordered the 35th Army to rescue Zhangjiakou. The 104th and 16th Army responded and were surrounded by the People's Liberation Army in Zhangjiakou and the new security. In order not to make Fu Zuoyi give up Pingjin to escape, the CPC Central Committee arranged to “encircle without hitting” the new security guard and Zhangjiakou. The Shandong Military Region in the Huaihai battlefield controlled the Jiaoji Railway, and the main force of the Northeast Field Army “separated but not encircled” Peking and Tianjin.

From December 21st to 24th, all Fu Zuoyi's troops trapped in Xinbaoan and Zhangjiakou were wiped out, and Fu Zuoyi's retreat was completely blocked. On January 14, under the command of the General Frontier Committee composed of Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan, and Nie Rongzhen, Liu Yalou issued a total offensive order against Tianjin to five columns in Dongye. The People's Liberation Army captured Tianjin within 29 hours, wiped out a total of 130,000 Kuomintang troops holding Tianjin, and captured the Tianjin Security Commander Chen Changjie. Beiping is a world-renowned cultural city. In order to prevent the destruction of historical and cultural sites by artillery fire and protect the people's lives and property, the CPC Central Committee decided to strive for the peaceful liberation of Beiping. With the overall victory of the Huaihai battlefield and the smooth liberation of Tianjin, Fu Zuoyi no longer hesitated, decided to take the road of peace, agreed to the requirements of the "Agreement on the Peaceful Settlement of the Beiping Issue," and by January 31, all Kuomintang troops stationed in Beiping were withdrawn. Out of town. As the PLA entered the city, Peiping was liberated.

One of the characteristics of the Pingjin campaign was the use of "surround without hitting" and "separation without encircling" tactics to separate and encircle, each of which was broken. The second characteristic of the Pingjin Campaign was that the "Peking Way" set a model for peaceful liberation.

Who were the commanders on both sides of the Pingjin Campaign?

The commanders behind the war often play a strategic role. For the people who want to know the truth of history, who are the commanders on both sides of the Pingjin Campaign? This topic has become the object of discussion for many people who understand history and like history. There are mainly three commanders of the PLA in the Pingjin Battle, namely Lin Biao, Liu Yalou, Luo Ronghuan, etc. Among them, Lin Biao has the highest rights, so he can be regarded as the highest commander. The Kuomintang's chief commander was Fu Zuoyi, who held the post of commander-in-chief of North China bandits and was stationed in Peiping. At that time, Chen Changjie was stationed in Tianjin.

Battle of pingjin


Battle of pingjin

According to the brief explanation above, the best answer to the question of who is the commander of the Pingjin Battle is Lin Biao and Fu Zuoyi. The two sides are the highest commanders of the PLA and the National Army in this battle. After the end of the Liaoning-Shenzhen campaign, the Northeast Field Army entered the customs without modification. The Kuomintang has not yet made adjustments and preparations for its troops. The decision of Lin Biao to enter the customs in advance made the PLA occupy a dominant position in the war from the beginning.

The top commander of the Kuomintang was Fu Zuoyi. He was not a direct affiliation of Chiang Kai-shek , and his biological daughter believed in the Communist Party, so the PLA secretly sought his surrender. When Chen Changjie, based in Tianjin, fell behind Tianjin, he no longer hesitated and surrendered directly to the People's Liberation Army. After Fu Zuoyi surrendered, Peiping was liberated in a peaceful way, and the Pingjin Campaign was declared over. The question of who is the commander on both sides of the Pingjin Campaign is also looming. Excellent commanders can indeed affect the victory of the war, but history tells people that "people who win the hearts of the people win the world."

The battle of Pingjin was revealed

The Pingjin Campaign went through three stages. The People's Liberation Army adopted the method of "capturing the tragedy" to annihilate the entire Kuomintang army. Let ’s introduce the process of the Pingjin Campaign.

Fu Zuoyi stills


In the first phase of the Pingjin Campaign, the People's Liberation Army first divided and surrounded the troops led by Fu Zuoyi and blocked their retreat. At the same time, they strengthened the defense of Tianjin, Tanggu and Beiping. After two weeks of siege, the PLA has completed the encirclement of the Kuomintang troops in Zhangjiakou, Peiping, Tianjin and other places, closing off the main escape route to the west and south.

Pingjin Battle Memorial Sculpture


Pingjin Battle Memorial Sculpture

The second phase of the Pingjin Campaign was the one-by-one annihilation of the enemies that had been surrounded. The PLA adopted a method of hitting two heads first and then taking the middle, thereby annihilating Fu Zuoyi's well-equipped elite troops. After annihilating the enemies in the Zhangjiakou area, the PLA focused on Tianjin, a strategically important place. It used 340,000 troops and adopted a strategic deployment of division and perimeter annihilation. It was annihilated after 29 hours of fierce war With more than 130,000 enemy forces, Tianjin was liberated. At this point, the battle process of the Battle of Pingjin has largely ended.

Old map of Pingjin battle


Old map of Pingjin battle

In the final phase of the Pingjin Campaign, there was very little artillery competition between the two sides. In order to protect the ancient city of Peiping from artillery fire, the Communist Party of China proposed peaceful negotiations, and at the same time prepared for a storm. After many negotiations, Fu Zuoyi accepted the relevant conditions put forward by the Communist Party. The Kuomintang army stationed in Peiping also accepted the adaptation, and Peiping was liberated.

This is the battle of Pingjin. The peaceful liberation of Peiping had a great impact on China's military and political development, which not only protected the ancient city, but also strengthened the position of the Communist Party in the hearts of the people.

The significance of the battle of Pingjin

As one of the three major battles in the civil war of the Communist Party of China, the Pingjin battle lasted for more than 60 days. It was commanded by Lin Biao, Nie Rongzhen, and others. With Beijing and Tianjin as the center, China combined military and political methods to eliminate and adapt The large number of Kuomintang troops not only liberated large areas including Beijing and Tianjin, but also laid a solid foundation for the subsequent war. Therefore, the significance of the Pingjin Campaign is very great. It reflects the great practice of the Communist Party leadership centered on Chairman Mao in strategic thinking, and it also means that the Chinese people's revolutionary war has achieved decisive victory.

Battle of pingjin


Battle of pingjin

The significance of the Pingjin Campaign is that, as the last of the three major battles, it has a promoting significance for the development of the liberation war. Through this battle, the Chinese People's Liberation Army eliminated and adapted 3 corps of the Republic of China Army at a cost of 39,000 casualties in 13 stages, with a total of 521,000 in 13 divisions and 50 divisions. The elite troops greatly damaged the morale and strength of the Kuomintang, and provided important conditions for subsequent wars.

In terms of strategy, the significance of the Pingjin Campaign cannot be ignored. The "Tianjin Way" and the "Peking Way" were successively produced in the battle of Pingjin. They have very important strategic significance for how to solve the enemy's remaining troops and speed up the liberation war. The "Tianjin Way" refers to the rapid settlement of local forces with violent attacks, and then used this method to promote the "Peking Way", that is, to force the enemy forces to accept peace when the enemy's periphery is cut off and its path is cut the solution. And these methods have many reference and learning significance so far.


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