According to the order in which the British and French coalition forces waged war on China, the route of the Second Opium War was first Guangzhou, then Tianjin, and finally the capital Beijing.
Roadmap to the Second Opium War
In the first phase of the Second Opium War, the British and French forces launched an armed attack on Guangzhou, China, by creating the "Yaro" incident in China. Subsequently, the Qing Army underwent a strong resistance under Ye Mingchen 's leadership, but because the weapons and equipment were too far apart, Guangzhou fell and the two sides signed the " Tianjin Treaty ."
In the second stage, the British and French forces first launched a war in Dagukou, Tianjin. After that, the war spread to Tianjin. After the fall of Tianjin, they continued their invasion north, successfully occupied Beijing, burned the Yuanmingyuan , and Emperor Xianfeng fled. Forced to sign the " Beijing Treaty ", the second opium really ended.
In addition, in the Second Opium War, China was forced to sign a series of bereavement and humiliation treaties. In these treaties, Huaxia was forced to open a series of ports in coastal areas, mainly Qiongzhou, Guangzhou, Taiwan, Shantou, Nanjing, Zhenjiang, etc. The opening of these commercial ports has enabled the British and French allies to gain a larger market in China, as well as the origin of raw materials and cheap labor. At the same time, the compulsory opening of commercial ports has an obvious feature, that is, it has a wide range of radiation and spreads inland. Of course, in addition to opening the port on the head, China also ceded Chinese territory to the invaders, mainly to the east of the Ussuri River and other places.
To sum up, the routes of the Second Opium War were Guangzhou, Tianjin, and Beijing; the routes to open the usual ports were south to north and Qiongzhou first, followed by Shantou, Taiwan, Jiujiang, Nanjing, Zhenjiang, etc., and finally Yantai and Yingkou areas. The divided land line starts from the north of Heilongjiang to the west of the last Horgos River.
What treaty did China sign during the Second Opium War?
In the Second Opium War, China, the defeated party, continued to obtain temporary peace by signing unequal treaties. This allowed the Western powers to wage war against China for the benefit of the continent. Is stretched. So what treaty did the Second Opium War sign?
Picture of signing the "Tianjin Treaty"
The question about what treaty was signed in the Second Opium War is actually very good. There are more than one treaty signed in the Second Opium War. Let ’s take a look at what treaties were signed in the Second Opium War?
In the Second Opium War, the first treaty that China signed was the Treaty of Puppetry . In May 1858, China was forced to sign the first unequal treaty after losing in the war in Russia. The territory north of Heilongjiang and south of Waixinganling was ceded to Russia, and the Chinese land east of the Ussuri River to the sea was changed to be jointly managed by China and Russia.
Subsequently, the British and French forces launched the Guangzhou campaign against China with the support of the United States and Russia, and captured Tianjin, China. As a result, the "Tianjin Treaty" signed by China with the United Kingdom, France, the United States and Russia, respectively, in the Sino-British "Tianjin Treaty" , China opened Nanjing, Tainan, Hankou and Jiujiang as commercial ports, and agreed that Britons can enter the mainland of China at will, and even promised the British to build a consulate in Beijing, and set up a consulate in the commercial port, and promised to pay 400 silver. In case of two to Britain.
In the Sino-French "Tianjin Treaty", China agreed to allow Catholicism to enter China to preach freely. At the same time, Bai allowed French warships to moor freely at commercial ports. Of course, he agreed to pay two million silver to France. Of course, in the "Tianjin Treaty" signed with the United States and Russia, China also agreed to a series of different provisions.
With the fall of Beijing, in order to stop the war, China once again signed the "Beijing Treaty" with Britain, France and Russia. With the signing of the Beijing Treaty, the Second Opium War came to an end. In other words, during the Second Opium War, China mainly signed the Treaty of Puppetry, the Treaty of Tianjin and the Treaty of Beijing with the aggressors.
Statistics of casualties in the Second Opium War
The casualties of the Second Opium War should be viewed from both sides of the war. The British and French coalition forces, as aggressors, did not have a large number of casualties under the state of well-equipped weapons. On the contrary, the Qing government regiment with tactical rigidity suffered heavy casualties because of its backward equipment. Repeated defeats .
Pictures of the second opium war
Of course, the number of casualties in the Second Opium War is not clearly recorded, so the analysis of the casualties of the war is more based on the situation of future generations. In the second Dagukou defense battle, the casualties of the British and French coalitions were large, and it is said that there were nearly 600 people. In addition, in the Sino-French war , the Chinese army had already announced its surrender before it was officially launched. Therefore, there were no casualties in the French army in this battle.
During the first battle in Dagukou and Tianjin, there was no clear record of casualties between the two sides. When the British and French forces captured Beijing, the Qing government had already rolled off the scrolls, so the two sides did not engage in a crossfire, but the British and French forces took the Huaxia people. The method of aggression was to burn and plunder, and it can be inferred that the Chinese people suffered heavy casualties.
In addition, during the Second Opium War, the peasant uprising movement inside China also entered a climax, so the Qing government at the time adopted laissez-faire on the invaders, and instead suppressed the insurgents. Even after the uprising was difficult to suppress, the invaders were united. Suppressing the uprising together, such acts have in fact increased the casualties of the Chinese people.
In summary, compared with the casualties of the Chinese people, the casualties of the British and French coalition forces should be negligible. After all, during the Second Opium War, the official army of Huaxia fought with the Chinese insurgents. In this situation, the casualties were still The Chinese army, followed by the invasion of foreign aggressors with weapons and equipment, could not keep up with the casualties caused. The total is definitely very large, which means that the second Opium War casualties were China ’s worst.
Losses from the Second Opium War
During the Second Opium War, the Chinese government continued to sign unequal treaties with Western powers because of repeated failures. The damage to China was not only measured by money. So what are the losses of the Second Opium War?
Pictures of the second opium war
The losses of the Second Opium War were first the Battle of Guangzhou and the two battles of Dagukou, and finally ended with the signing of the "Tianjin Treaty" of bereavement and disgrace. Of course, the "Tianjin Treaty" is not simply co-signed with Western powers, and promises some unequal treaties to the parties, but it is signed separately with different countries, so the interests and damages are doubled. In the "Sino-British and Sino-French Treaty of Tianjin", the Chinese government agreed that the British sent a ambassador to Beijing, and also opened Nanjing and other places as trade ports, allowing foreigners to preach in China, and to travel and trade in China. At the same time, the customs duty collection was modified to reduce the merchant vessel tonnage tax. The compensation to the United Kingdom was 4 million silver, and the amount to France was 2 million silver. The final compensation amount increased to 8 million.
Later, after the British and French allies occupied Tianjin and then fought in Beijing. After the successful capture of Beijing, the British and French allies looted the Royal Garden Yuanmingyuan, and the precious cultural relics were snatched by the British and French allies. The invaders also burned the fire. This is a great loss to Chinese history and culture. Many things in the garden are priceless, so the loss cannot be predicted. After that, China signed the "Beijing Treaty" with Britain, France, and Tsarist Russia. As for this treaty, the most important is the division of territories. In the "China-Russia Beijing Treaty", Russia directly occupied Ussuri Jiangdong. The vast territory of the sea, this is also a lay of China's current land area. That is to say, the losses of the Second Opium War related to compensation, land deduction, taxation, etc.
Overview of the Second Opium War
The Second Opium War lasted a total of four years, during which a lot of battles occurred, including the Battle of Guangzhou, the battle of Dagukou, etc., so what is the process of the Second Opium War? Let ’s take a look at the second The process of the Opium War.
Pictures of the second opium war
In 1856, the British attacked Guangzhou under the pretext of capturing the pirates on board the Chinese ship "Yarrow" in Huangpu, Guangzhou, by the Guangdong Marine Division, which was the beginning of the Guangzhou battle.
In December 1857, the British and French forces again assembled about 5,000 people at the Pearl River Estuary in China and launched an attack. At that time, the United States and Russia also sent troops to Hong Kong to join forces with the British and French armies to launch an invasion of China. At this time, a large-scale peasant uprising broke out in China, the most important of which was the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement. To suppress the peasant uprising in China, the Manchu government completely turned its forces inward, thereby indulging the Western powers to invade China's coast. From December 28th to 29th, 1857, in just two days, the British and French forces successfully captured Guangzhou, and the Second Opium War in Guangzhou defeated China.
In April 1858, Britain, France, Russia, and the United States assembled their fleets again. This time, they chose China's Dagukou, but instead of sending troops directly, they proposed negotiations with China. At the time, the United States and Russia stated that they were willing to act as intermediaries and adjust during the negotiations between the two parties, but their purpose was still to gain benefits in China. At that time, the Emperor Xianfeng was in power. He ordered the Qing army stationed in Dagu, Tianjin, and sent the negotiating minister to negotiate, but the purpose of the British-French negotiations was not to negotiate, but to delay time and make military preparations. Naturally, it ended in failure. After the negotiation failed, Britain, France, the United States, and Russia began to attack China. This was also the first big selling war. In the same war, China lost the unequal treaties signed with Britain, France, the United States, and Russia.
Soon, the four countries launched another war, such as the Second Battle of Dagukou, and the war spread directly to Beijing. After the fall of Beijing, the fire burned the Yuanmingyuan. Therefore, the process of the Second Opium War was the process of the British and French forces invading China.
Comparison of weapons and equipment in the Second Opium War
In the Second Opium War, the Qing army had several times the strength of the British and French coalition forces, but the war failed again and again. The main reason is that the gap between weapons and equipment was too large. So what is the equipment of the Second Opium War?
Pictures of the second opium war
Regarding the equipment of the Second Opium War, it is necessary to look at the comparison between the two sides of the war. Although gunpowder was invented by China and passed to the West, it is Western countries that really use it for weapons. In the war of aggression by the Western powers, the weapons of aggression they used were foreign guns and cannons made of gunpowder. Although in the Second Opium War, the Qing government army was also equipped with guns and ammunition, but it was not enough to see that these weapons and equipment hit the British and French troops. Besides, more Qing soldiers held large swords and spears.
According to historical records, in the Second Opium War, about 80 percent of the Qing government soldiers held large swords, spears and crossbows. The remaining 20 percent used firearms, but It is just a shotgun with a range of less than a hundred or two hundred meters. Raising the gun, the shot time of the bullet is about one minute; the cannon that it owns has a range of only about one kilometer, and uses solid bullets with lethality. Very small.
The weapons in the British army are all rifles in their hands. The minimum range is 200 meters. Three bullets can be fired in one minute. In addition, the cannons in the British army have a range of 2,000 to 3,000 kilometers. In addition to a small amount of solid ammunition, there are also flower bullets and shotguns that are very lethal. Of course, there are warships in Britain. The largest of these warships is more than 30 feet long. It is divided into upper, middle, and lower levels. It can be installed with more than 70 cannons. The medium size also has two layers. In addition to the cannons on the warships, the ship was also equipped with ten cannons. The above are the weapons and equipment of China and Britain in the Second Opium War.
Therefore, the equipment of the Second Opium War differed too much, so even the large number of Qing troops would not help.
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