The failure of the Opium War was due to the retreat of the Qing Dynasty, which gradually lags behind the Western world. Therefore, there was a close relationship between the Opium War. So what led to the Qing Dynasty's policy of sequestering the country? What are the necessary links between the opium war and the country?
As early as the Kangxi reign , the Emperor Kangxi implemented a "sea ban" policy before the recapture of Taiwan. Coastal residents were banned from approaching the seashore to sever the connection between Taiwan Island and the mainland. Although the Qing Dynasty eventually withdrew Taiwan, this measure also withered the people's livelihood along the coast, leaving nowhere to be seen. Fortunately, the Emperor Kangxi loved Western natural science and technology. He opened a number of trading ports to do business with foreign countries. Therefore, the Qing Dynasty at this time also had access to many Western science and technology.
When the Emperor Yongzheng came to power, there were only four remaining commercial ports along the coast, which greatly reduced communication with Western countries. Although the Emperor Yongzheng also had a soft spot for Western science and technology, the communication between China and the West at this time was far from comparable to the Kangxi Dynasty. During the Qianlong reign , Emperor Qianlong strengthened the seclusion of the country on the basis of Emperor Yongzheng, and closely monitored and controlled Western businessmen in China. By the late Qianlong period, there was only one Guangzhou thirteen line in the foreign trade port of the entire Qing dynasty, and it could only be sold under the tight control of the government.
The gap between China and the West is getting wider. Finally, in the Opium War forty years after the death of Qianlong, the Qing dynasty was defeated. This reminds people of the huge relationship between the seclusion of this Opium War. However, it was too late at this time, and the country opened by the Western powers forever lost its role in protecting the "upper kingdom of heaven."
What happened to the Qing government after the Opium War
After the Opium War of the Second Series, contradictions emerged endlessly among government officials and the oppressive rule and plunder of the colonists. It can be said that the Qing government after the Opium War had internal and external troubles, and the entire government was divided into two factions, the Westerners and the diehards. Some enlightened officials have absorbed the advanced ideas of the West and called on emulating advanced technology to strengthen the country and to resist foreign invasion. These are called "foreigners," and one official is sticking to the rules , only knowing to beg for mercy. This part is called "the diehard."
The "Westernization School" is represented in the royal court by Prince Gong Yizhang, and in the locality they are represented by Zeng Guofan , Li Hongzhang, etc. These people have jointly initiated a Westernization movement advocated by "teachers and masters to control foreigners" and advocate Learn about various advanced technologies in the West, such as; light, electricity, sound, trains, and more. At the same time, they also used the slogan of "self-improvement and seeking prosperity", advocating the study of Western capitalist social systems, and setting up factories and manufacturing equipment to achieve the purpose of resisting foreign aggression.
The "stubborns" are mainly represented by Tong Ren and Song Jin. In addition to some local officials, their thinking is more conservative and believes that the fundamentals of keeping the country can be invincible. Because of their different positions, Westerners and die-hards have led to deepening conflicts between their homes. However, the Westernization Movement was definitely the best choice for the Qing government after the Opium War. It not only had a huge impact on the economy and politics of the time, but also played a prerequisite role in the future development of China's politics and economy. In addition, the Westernization Movement also promoted the development and progress of China's education cause, which laid a certain foundation for China's future progress towards modernization! The above is the answer to the question of the Qing government after the Opium War.
What is the sign of the beginning of the Opium War
The sign of the beginning of the Opium War was not Humen's sales of cigarettes , Humen's sales of cigarettes was just a fuse. The outbreak of this war has its accidental factors, but more is its inevitable factor.
In addition to Humen selling cigarettes, the blockade of the Pearl River by the British fleet is also one of the signs that the British will launch the Opium War. Blocking the surface of the Pearl River cut off the possibility that the Daqingshui Division wanted to enter the South China Sea and copy the British fleet from behind. This is undoubtedly an important signal before the war. The British invaders also blocked Guangzhou, the central city of South China, from foreign aid by blocking the Pearl River. It also severed the economic lifeline of Guangzhou and its surrounding cities. As a result, the military and civilians in Guangzhou could not get any human, material, or financial support from the central government. They had to fight alone and rely on the military and civilians to protect themselves.
The most important sign that the Opium War was about to begin was that the British army had abandoned cities already occupied by Guangzhou and other places and concentrated their forces northward. They intend to make the Qing government desperate and helpless with the tremendous power exerted by advanced weapons and equipment. Sure enough , the British army ’s move made the internal groups of the Qing government oscillate between war and peace, so that they felt deep threats from the British army in their hearts. In order to protect themselves and to continue their corrupt rule, they humblely accepted all the humiliating conditions of the British army.
The beginning of the Opium War marked that the "closed country" policy of the "Upper Kingdom of Heaven" which has been implemented for a century can no longer continue. It also indicates that the emerging capitalist forces should rapidly expand their global influence, open the market of feudal forces, and capture more benefits for their own development and growth.
What are the effects of the two Opium Wars
The Opium War is an aggressive war waged by Western powers in order to open China's door to gain a larger commodity market and raw material origin. The Opium War has brought a lot of influence to China and is of great significance to the development of modern China. The impact of the two Opium Wars is mainly reflected in three aspects.
On the political front, the impact of the two Opium Wars hastened the collapse of feudal rule, and a large amount of war compensation has made the contradiction between the ruling class and the governed class deeper and deeper. After the war, China's national doors opened. Although this was not the original intention of the Qing government, it objectively created favorable conditions for China to learn from the West and to promote social progress in modern China.
Economically, the impact of the two Opium Wars has led to the birth of modern Chinese national capitalism. A large number of commercial ports have been opened to the outside world following the successive failures of the Qing government, and a large number of foreign-made goods have poured into the Chinese market, which has caused China to be involved in the capitalist economic system. Many foreign advanced equipment and advanced technologies have been introduced into the country by people of insight, which has opened the course of modern Chinese economic development. In terms of ideology and culture, the impact of the two Opium Wars was to awaken many patriots from the dream of "the kingdom of heaven", and they began to set their sights on the world and began a series of roads to save their lives. Hong Renxuan's "Zheng Zheng New Chapter" is the product of conforming to this historical trend. It was the first plan to develop capitalism in China. Although it was limited to the historical pattern at that time, it failed to implement it, but it played a certain role in promoting the spread of Western ideas in China, promoting China's integration into the world, and accelerating China's development.
What is the nature of the Opium War
In the records of modern history of our country, there have been two Opium Wars. Although these two wars started because of Opium, the nature of these two Opium Wars is completely different. The following are brief introductions.
The first Opium War took place in the 20th year of Daoguang . The nature of this Opium War was that the British capital-led Western capitalist powers aggressively expanded and colonized overseas. The weakness and corruption of the Qing government caused unprecedented national stigma and National disaster. For the Chinese people, this is a just battle against foreign forces. This war caused China to become a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society from more than 2,000 years of feudal society. The main class contradictions and social nature of China have also changed since then. Previously, domestic contradictions mainly existed between the people and the ruling class. After the Opium War, in addition to making the contradiction between the two more acute, it also increased the contradiction between the Chinese nation and foreign forces.
The Second Opium War took place six years in Xianfeng , and it was 16 years since the last Opium War. The nature of this Opium War is a shameless war of aggression. The Crimean War between Britain and France in the European battlefield defeated Tsarist Russia and wanted to gain greater profits in China. It happened that Tsarist Russia's development was frustrated in the West, and it wanted to seek development in the East in order to make up for the losses in the West. Therefore, behind the support of British and French troops, they launched the second Opium War in history. This war exacerbated the reduction of China into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society, which greatly harmed the interests of the Chinese nation. More than 1.5 million square kilometers of land was forever divided from China. The destruction of the Yuanmingyuan also caused a serious psychological and cultural blow to the Chinese nation.
What are the reasons for the defeat of the Opium War
The defeat of the Opium War opened the beginning of the modern history of humiliation in our country and affected the development trend of our country in modern times. It is a watershed of the Chinese National Games and a symbol of the division between modern and ancient times. The reasons for the defeat of the Opium War are actually various.
First of all, one of the main reasons for the defeat of the Opium War was that the political environment and military strength of the Qing government at the time were too large compared to the British that had completed the first industrial revolution . Since the first full year of Shunzhi 's entry into the customs, it has gone through 134 years of Kangyong's prosperous years, and then experienced the 45-year rule of Jiaqing and Daoguang. At this time, the country is already in a state of twilight.
The reason for the defeat of the Opium War was political and political corruption and rampant corruption. Military generals lack training and their weapons are outdated. The so-called " eight-flag powerhouse" is no longer a battle-hard warrior in the hands of Taizu Nurhachi , the founding father of the past. The Taizong Emperor Emperor Taiji 's prophecy that "when the soldiers were kept in captivity," the prophecy became unfortunately realized two hundred years later.
Secondly, the personal qualities of the rulers of the Qing Dynasty were also important factors in this defeat. Although Emperor Daoguang worked hard and advocated frugality, he no longer had the aggressive spirit of previous emperors. And for the ills accumulated since the late Qianlong period, he was also powerless, and it was difficult to solve them in a short time. Most unfortunately, he was the first to end the war and plan of the Opium War, and he made no mistakes. The repeated tragedies led to the final tragedy. The Emperor Daoguang never dreamed that he would lead the Qing Dynasty to cut the land and make compensations. He himself spent the last ten years of rule with unlimited guilt.
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