On the eve of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the Qing dynasty was always immersed in the dreams of the kingdom of heaven. The long-standing cultural advantage of Japan blinded the eyes of the bureaucrats and intellectuals of the Qing dynasty. For the unreasonable ambitions exposed by Japan, It is the voice of "Teach the Japanese well". Although some people at that time had felt the pulse of the Qing Dynasty's weakness and corruption, few people predicted that the Qing Dynasty would lose so much in the Sino-Japanese War . This article selects some events in the Qing Dynasty ’s internal affairs and foreign affairs before the Sino-Japanese War, and sees how the dynasty, driven by its pride and arrogance, has left behind in military diplomacy one after another, and has been seized by the long-cherished Japanese to seize the handle .
Arrogant view of freshman Japan
After the Opium War, although some enlightened bureaucrats began to look at the world seriously, they focused on Western powers, not Japan. The high level of civilization in history has nourished the Chinese people's sense of superiority in Chinese culture. Generally, Chinese scholars refer to Japan as the "Small East Country" of the "Three Islands". This arrogant attitude has led to an understanding of Japan. not enough. A major event such as the Meiji Restoration of Japan in 1868 did not attract the attention of the Chinese government and the public, and the acquaintances criticized it with contempt. This was a political change that was changing, changing customs, and being absurd. In 1874, Japan launched a war of aggression against Taiwan, plundering 500,000 silver in the Qing Dynasty, exposing its ambitions of aggression, but it did not arouse the high vigilance of the Qing government. At that time, there were many publications, such as "Miscellaneous in Japan", which ridiculed Japan as "the east and the west, the west and the east, nothing." Some even arrogantly advocated the theory of Japanese enlistment to help Japan restore the shogunate system.
French Minister in France Shi Alan commented on this: "At that time, the country seemed to have no interest in its future. It coexisted peacefully with the powers and did not even notice that Japan was becoming stronger." Shi Alan also continued to comment on Li Hongzhang : " He may be the only Chinese who can truly understand the needs and necessary equipment of a modern country. However, he would rather lie on pride and contempt of possible enemies and be content with the power and richness of fantasy. "
Historical data recorded a trivial matter that could reflect the mindset of the Qing Dynasty. In January 1876, the only 30-year-old Japanese envoy to the Qing Dynasty, Mori Mori, passed through Tianjin. He was dressed in Western clothes and visited 53-year-old Li Hongzhang. Li Hongzhang said: "His appreciation for imitating the European style and abandoning the old service system is like a system of committing your country's independence to Europe. Isn't it a shame?" Mori replied: "There are no choices for foreign things. Coercion by others is a matter of our own people's preferences, so there is no shame in it. In ancient times, China has tried to absorb and adopt the strengths of Asia, Europe, America and other countries for its own use. "Li Hongzhang said confidently," But China will never proceed. Such a change is only a matter of absorbing Western things in terms of weapons, railways, telecommunications and other machinery, because these things are the best of those countries. "
"Nagasaki incident" exacerbates anti-Qing sentiment in Japan
The Qing Dynasty not only despised Japan in ideology, but also always sought opportunities to "declare national authority" against Japan in actual actions. Among them, the "Nagasaki incident" is extremely sensitive in the history of the relationship between Japan and Japan, and it can be regarded as a fuse for the deterioration of relations between the two countries. In August 1886, Beiyang Sergeant Ding Ruchang led a fleet of warships such as Dingyuan, Zhenyuan, Jiyuan, Weiyuan, etc. After the exercises in North Korean waters were completed, they were ordered to arrive in Nagasaki on August 1st, named maintenance warships. Declared military authority. On August 13, several Qing dynasty sailors who had landed on the shore for shopping and leisure had a fight with Japanese patrol officers in a loan-dressing brothel building in Yuko-machi, Maruyama. On the afternoon of the 15th, about 300 sailors went ashore for shopping and leisure. The Qing Dynasty sailors, who had already complained, and the Japanese patrol clashed again until it caused a group fight between more than 200 sailors and more local Japanese and patrol officers. The final investigation and statistics showed that 2 Japanese patrol officers were killed and 26 injured, and 5 sailors were killed and 44 injured.
The Nagasaki incident was an unexpected episode of the Qing Dynasty's declaration of national authority, and the incident ended with compensation between the two countries. The event ended with a compromise between the two sides rather than the unilateral concession of the Qing court, which led some to believe that this was the first diplomatic victory of the Qing court after the Opium War. But the impact of the Nagasaki incident was much more than that. Under the provocation of the Japanese authorities, anti-China, feudal, and anti-Chinese sentiments of the Japanese people were stirred up. There is a "threat of the Qing Dynasty" among Japanese people. Japanese media described the arrival of the Beiyang Fleet as comparable to the arrival of a black ship from the US Fleet during the Edo period. Just around the Dingyuan ship, several novels such as "Unworthy to Return", "Unsinkable Dingyuan", and "The Second Yuan Kou" appeared in Japan, preaching how the brave Japanese navy would attack the Dingyuan ship. Some ignorant children also played Dingyuan and Zhenyuan games.
On March 14, 1887, the Emperor of Japan issued a decree "The imperative to establish a country is in Haiphong, and one day must not be delayed." The royal family earmarked 300,000 yen as a donation to Haiphong. Within six months from Prime Minister Ito Hirofumi to nobles, wealthy people, and big names, Donations to Haiphong have reached 2 million yen, and the Japanese government has issued more than 17 million yen in naval bonds. Japan accelerated its 10-year plan for naval construction in 1884. After 8 years of development, its naval strength has actually surpassed the Beiyang Fleet.
In addition, another evil consequence of the Nagasaki incident was that the intelligence gate of the Qing Dynasty was opened. At the scene of the fighting, a Japanese named Wu Gogoro accidentally picked up a small dictionary missing from the Beiyang Marine Division sailor. The Chinese characters in the small dictionary were marked with different small numbers from 0-9 on both sides. The Japanese intelligence department immediately determined that this was a translated version of the Chinese characters used by the Qing army telegraph. By analyzing these Chinese characters and numbers, it had initially mastered the basic method of cracking the Qing Dynasty code. In order to thoroughly crack the password , Japanese Foreign Minister Lu Aozongguang deliberately set up a trap and provided the government official of the Qing Dynasty Wang Fengzao with a medium-length Chinese character written in Japanese. On the following day, Japan Telecommunications Division successfully intercepted a telegram sent by the embassy to the Prime Minister's Yamen. At the time, the director of the telecommunications department, Ai Sato, used this telegram that the Chinese characters were fully aware of, and studied it carefully, and finally cracked the code of the Qing Dynasty embassy.
This secret was only known to a limited number of Japanese, such as Ayumi Sato, Hiroshi Ito, and Mitsuko Mitsuko. Until 30 years after Ito Hiroshi was assassinated, with the publication of Hiroshi Ito's legacy "Confidential Nisshin War", it was limited Make the matter public. Surprisingly, the Qing Dynasty, which was paralyzed by intelligence work, did not change the password in subsequent diplomatic and military events, and even in the subsequent peace talks. The secret military diplomatic information of the Qing Dynasty has been placed on the eyes of rivals for a long time. under.
For this reason, after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the Japanese government secretly awarded Sato Ai a third-class medal and a special pension annuity. Later, Sato Ao went straight up and served as the Japanese ambassador to the United States for 7 years.
The assassination of Jin Yujun that ignited the war
In the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, in addition to China and Japan, North Korea also played a very important role. The North Korean issue was also the breakthrough point for Japan to launch the war of aggression. Before the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the Qing Dynasty still publicly implemented the policy of supporting the North and suppressing Japan in North Korea. The "Jinyujun assassination incident" was once again used by Japan.
Jin Yujun is a famous politician and reformer in modern times in Korea. His most famous identity is the leader of the North Korean Cultivation Party. He has a close relationship with Japan. He visited Japan three times between 1882 and 1884. In 1884, the Jiashen coup launched by the Kaihua Party in conjunction with Japan was a flash in the pan , and was suppressed by the Qing Army. He had to flee to Japan and became an enemy of Min Fei, the governor of North Korea. In March 1894, Hong Zhongyu , an assassin sent by Min Fei, induced Jin Yujun to meet with Qing dynasty official Li Jingfang in Shanghai with heavy money, and deceived Jin Yujun to come to Shanghai. In a Japanese hotel in Shanghai's American Concession, Hong Zhongyu broke into the door and shot Jin Yujun with three shots.
The Japanese government repeatedly sent people to extradite Hong Zhongyu and removed Jin Yujun's body, but they were all rejected. The Qing dynasty has always supported North Korea to suppress domestic pro-Japanese forces. To this end, the special warship Weijing specially returned Hong Zhongyu himself and Jin Yujun's body to North Korea. North Korea not only took Jin Yujun's corpse Ling Chi's corpse, but also handled Jin Yujun family. This incident left the Japanese government and government in disgrace and anger, and condemned the weakness of the Japanese government.
On May 20, about 2,000 people including Japanese lawmaker Inu Yoshi and other people from all walks of life held the funeral of Jin Yujun at Sensoji Temple in Tokyo. At the funeral, everyone claimed that the return of Jin Yujun's body to North Korea was a great insult to Japan. Subsequently, propaganda such as "Zheng Qing Theory" was reproduced in Japanese media for several days, and the Japanese government and the people gradually formed a consensus in challenging the Qing Dynasty. In Japan, many people also regarded the "Jin Yujun assassination incident" and the North Korean Eastern Academic Party peasant uprising as the direct cause of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894.
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