Chinese name: Abbas I
Foreign name: Abbas I of Persia, عباس بزرگ
Alias: Abbas the Great, Abbas I
Nationality: Persian ( Safi Dynasty )
Place of birth: Herat, Afghanistan
Date of Birth: January 27, 1571
Died: January 19, 1629
Occupation: Persian Shah
Belief: Shiite Islam
Main achievement: bringing the Safi Dynasty to its heyday
Recapture Khorasan from Uzbek
Three battles against the Ottoman Empire, occupation of the Caucasus
Taking back Holmuz from Portugal
Abbas I (Persian: عباس بزرگ, English: Abbas I of Persia; January 27, 1571—January 19, 1629), also known as Abbas the Great , Monarch of the Persian Safi Dynasty (1587— Reigned in 1629). During his reign, the Safi dynasty reached its peak of national power.
Abbas I paid particular attention to the consolidation of centralization and the development of economic power. To this end, he long fought against the divided Turkmen nomadic tribes, which were the pillars of force established by the Safi Dynasty. Abbas I forcibly relocated Georgians, Armenians, and Azerbaijanis to the interior of Iran to develop productivity there. He relentlessly suppressed all resistance attempts by the conquered nations.
In terms of foreign policy, Abbas I was very active. A peace agreement was signed with the Ottoman Empire in 1590, ending the Ottoman-Safari war. In 1597, he recaptured Khorasan from the Uzbeks; in 1601 he occupied Bahrain. The conflict with the Ottoman Empire has not been resolved since then. From 1603, Abbas I fought the Ottoman Empire three times. As a result of the war, the Safi dynasty gained control of the entire Transcaucasus. In 1622, Abbas I also captured Hormuz from Portugal with the help of the British fleet. By 1623, Abbas I had ruled a huge empire from the west to the Tigris and the east to the Indus, making Safi Persia a state of prosperity.
Abbas I (respected as "The Abbas the Great") was an accomplished and open-minded emperor. In the history of the development of Islam, Abbas was the same as Suleiman and Akbar. He not only affected Iranian history, but also played a significant role in the East-West exchanges in the era of great navigation.
Abbas came out of the town of Khorasan and Herat as a prince in his early years. In the intricate contradictions between the Persian royal family and the Turkmen general, he became an excellent candidate that was acceptable to all parties. In 1587, Abbas ascended the throne with the support of the Turkmen nobleman Kuri Khan, and sent the faint father Hudabanda into the "Lord of the Emperor" cold house. The 18-year-old Abbas knows his main threat very well. The Turkman Red Hat generals are fickle in the country, and the fierce Ottoman Empire in the west and the fierce Uzbek tribe in the east.
When he came to power, the internal Turkmen tribe chiefs overwhelmed internally and externally; the two strong neighbors of the external Ottoman Empire and Uzbek Khanate constantly violated the map. The first task is to stabilize their rule. Abbas first relied on the power of Curi Khan to eliminate some of the unruly Turkman nobles on the grounds of tracing the queen of his mother and brother Wang. After suppressing a rebellious conspiracy, he recovered a large number of Fengyi. Then, Curry Khan, an ambitious hero, tasted the taste of " cooking rabbits and dead dogs ". After removing Curry Khan, Abbas was in control.
Strengthen imperial power
Abbas, led by strengthening imperial power, rebuilt the ruling structure of the Safi dynasty. The central government establishes a supreme conference of advisory bodies, convened by the emperor, and appointed by the emperor; in the administrative aspect, the two posts of the regent and red hat army commander are removed to strengthen the status of prime minister; the province system is improved, and the prince or the trustworthy governor is to be trusted; Gradually "cut the clan" and put part of the private territory of the Turkmen aristocracy under the control of the emperor himself. In order to guard against the "difficulty" of ethnic minorities, Abbas also forced some ethnic groups, such as Kurds , to leave their homeland and travel elsewhere. Abbas the most noticeable reform was in the military. His military reform is divided into two parts. One is "modernization". With the help of the British adventurer Brother Shelley, the Persian army has developed from a tribal-style army to a new type of equipment with firearms, copper cannons and other equipment. The army, with more than 10,000 artillery members, became the main force of the Persian army; on the other hand, it was "imperialized", which changed the dominant situation of the "Red Hat" and absorbed a large number of Caucasian Muslims into the army, and the Turkmen nobility No longer have privileges, all officers and men are under the full control of the emperor. Like other West Asian countries, Abbas has developed an elite Guard, which belongs directly to the Emperor himself.
At the same time that the results of Abbas's reforms are gradually appearing, they have just encountered the great international situation. The Uzbek tribe fell into civil strife. Abbas took the opportunity to attack and seized the rivers and mountains from Khorasan to Herat. South of the Amu Darya became his sphere of influence, and the Afghans also proclaimed him. Then, facing the declining Ottoman Empire, Abbas wiped out the century-long stigma of the Persians. After 10 years of hard work, in 1613, the Turks were forced to sign the "Istanbul Treaty" and the old capital Tabriz and Kurdistan, Azerbaijan were taken back In other places, the westward expedition was repeated in 1623, and the entire two river basins including Baghdad and Basra were recovered after five years. This is the height of the Safi dynasty's territory. In the contest with its rival Ottoman Empire, the balance completely fell to the Persian side. Another significant influence of Abbas the Great was in religion. The founding emperor of the Safi dynasty, Ismaili, used a fierce method to promote Shiites and persecuted Sunnis, giving Shiites the upper hand in Persia. Abbas fostered Shiites in a more modest way. He had donated all his private property to Shiites, and had visited the Shiite Tombs for nearly a month on foot. After 42 years of imperceptibility , Persia finally became a thorough Shi'ite Muslim country. Since the rise of Islam, Persia has been a member of many civilizations in the Middle East as a member of it, but since the Safi Dynasty, Shiites have distinguished Persia from Sunni Muslim countries on both sides, and have become Persia ever since. The unique banner maintains the independence of this country.
Forefront of the times
The era of Emperor Abbas was the era of great sailing, when Western European navigators arrived. To the south, the Portuguese occupied Hormuz Island and used it as a base to develop trade across the Indian Ocean, receiving Abbas's tolerance and preferential treatment; to the north, Abbas took the initiative to visit Russia to promote the two countries Trade. Later, with the help of the British, Abbas recaptured the island of Hormuz, with the mainland port Abbas as the main external window. The British replaced the Portuguese, and Abbas gave the British many advantages and rights, and even allowed them to open workshops in Persia. The growth of foreign trade has also led to the development of domestic handicrafts. Persian seeds of capitalism have emerged. Abbas has incorporated important handicrafts sectors into state control. This has strengthened the country's strength, but has hampered the principle of free capital competition. Abbas also sent missions to Western European countries to establish diplomatic relations. Among them, the King of Germany was very interested in the alliance between the two countries to deal with the Turkish Ottoman Empire. There is a reason for Abbas's active development of relations with Western Christian countries. The main purpose is to find allies who attack the Ottoman Empire. However, proactive Eastern monarchs like him in East-West interaction are rare.
Abbas also has another achievement, that is, the construction of the new capital Isfahan, which is located in the hinterland of Persia, far from the attack range of the Ottoman Empire, moved to the capital in 1598, and carried out large-scale construction. After several generations of operations, it has gained the reputation of "half of the world in Isfahan".
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